Remix-ide: how to set “runs” for optimizer at a value different from the default 200?

1

As you may know, the default solc optimizer “runs” value is 200.

Apparently remix does not permit to change this value.

Has someone any idea of how to change it?

share|improve this question

    1

    As you may know, the default solc optimizer “runs” value is 200.

    Apparently remix does not permit to change this value.

    Has someone any idea of how to change it?

    share|improve this question

      1

      1

      1

      As you may know, the default solc optimizer “runs” value is 200.

      Apparently remix does not permit to change this value.

      Has someone any idea of how to change it?

      share|improve this question

      As you may know, the default solc optimizer “runs” value is 200.

      Apparently remix does not permit to change this value.

      Has someone any idea of how to change it?

      remix

      share|improve this question

      share|improve this question

      share|improve this question

      share|improve this question

      asked 2 days ago

      Rick Park

      738111

      738111

          1 Answer
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          2

          Someone might have a better idea, but you could serve Remix locally on your own machine by following the instructions for building here and here.

          Once you’ve understood the build flow, you can then tweak the runs value in the compiler-input.js file:

          module.exports = (sources, opts) => {
            return JSON.stringify({
              language: 'Solidity',
              sources: sources,
              settings: {
                optimizer: {
                  enabled: opts.optimize === true || opts.optimize === 1,
                  runs: 200
                },
          ....
          

          share|improve this answer

          • 2

            This is a brilliant idea. It is not applicable in this exact moment because the current version, 0.7.5, suffers from a bug in remixd interface that, for the moment, requires to use the online version. But it is brilliant!
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          • Thanks for pointing out the bug in the current version 🙂 You could try git clone-ing a version from before the bug was introduced, but you’d need to work out which commit introduced the bug. This might, a) be more hassle than it’s worth, and b) remove some other functionalities that you need for your testing. Hopefully the bug will be resolved in the near future 🙂
            – Richard Horrocks
            2 days ago

          • Indeed dev team promised to fix this soon…
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          Your Answer

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          2

          Someone might have a better idea, but you could serve Remix locally on your own machine by following the instructions for building here and here.

          Once you’ve understood the build flow, you can then tweak the runs value in the compiler-input.js file:

          module.exports = (sources, opts) => {
            return JSON.stringify({
              language: 'Solidity',
              sources: sources,
              settings: {
                optimizer: {
                  enabled: opts.optimize === true || opts.optimize === 1,
                  runs: 200
                },
          ....
          

          share|improve this answer

          • 2

            This is a brilliant idea. It is not applicable in this exact moment because the current version, 0.7.5, suffers from a bug in remixd interface that, for the moment, requires to use the online version. But it is brilliant!
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          • Thanks for pointing out the bug in the current version 🙂 You could try git clone-ing a version from before the bug was introduced, but you’d need to work out which commit introduced the bug. This might, a) be more hassle than it’s worth, and b) remove some other functionalities that you need for your testing. Hopefully the bug will be resolved in the near future 🙂
            – Richard Horrocks
            2 days ago

          • Indeed dev team promised to fix this soon…
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          2

          Someone might have a better idea, but you could serve Remix locally on your own machine by following the instructions for building here and here.

          Once you’ve understood the build flow, you can then tweak the runs value in the compiler-input.js file:

          module.exports = (sources, opts) => {
            return JSON.stringify({
              language: 'Solidity',
              sources: sources,
              settings: {
                optimizer: {
                  enabled: opts.optimize === true || opts.optimize === 1,
                  runs: 200
                },
          ....
          

          share|improve this answer

          • 2

            This is a brilliant idea. It is not applicable in this exact moment because the current version, 0.7.5, suffers from a bug in remixd interface that, for the moment, requires to use the online version. But it is brilliant!
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          • Thanks for pointing out the bug in the current version 🙂 You could try git clone-ing a version from before the bug was introduced, but you’d need to work out which commit introduced the bug. This might, a) be more hassle than it’s worth, and b) remove some other functionalities that you need for your testing. Hopefully the bug will be resolved in the near future 🙂
            – Richard Horrocks
            2 days ago

          • Indeed dev team promised to fix this soon…
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          2

          2

          2

          Someone might have a better idea, but you could serve Remix locally on your own machine by following the instructions for building here and here.

          Once you’ve understood the build flow, you can then tweak the runs value in the compiler-input.js file:

          module.exports = (sources, opts) => {
            return JSON.stringify({
              language: 'Solidity',
              sources: sources,
              settings: {
                optimizer: {
                  enabled: opts.optimize === true || opts.optimize === 1,
                  runs: 200
                },
          ....
          

          share|improve this answer

          Someone might have a better idea, but you could serve Remix locally on your own machine by following the instructions for building here and here.

          Once you’ve understood the build flow, you can then tweak the runs value in the compiler-input.js file:

          module.exports = (sources, opts) => {
            return JSON.stringify({
              language: 'Solidity',
              sources: sources,
              settings: {
                optimizer: {
                  enabled: opts.optimize === true || opts.optimize === 1,
                  runs: 200
                },
          ....
          

          share|improve this answer

          share|improve this answer

          share|improve this answer

          answered 2 days ago

          Richard Horrocks

          21.2k94499

          21.2k94499

          • 2

            This is a brilliant idea. It is not applicable in this exact moment because the current version, 0.7.5, suffers from a bug in remixd interface that, for the moment, requires to use the online version. But it is brilliant!
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          • Thanks for pointing out the bug in the current version 🙂 You could try git clone-ing a version from before the bug was introduced, but you’d need to work out which commit introduced the bug. This might, a) be more hassle than it’s worth, and b) remove some other functionalities that you need for your testing. Hopefully the bug will be resolved in the near future 🙂
            – Richard Horrocks
            2 days ago

          • Indeed dev team promised to fix this soon…
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          • 2

            This is a brilliant idea. It is not applicable in this exact moment because the current version, 0.7.5, suffers from a bug in remixd interface that, for the moment, requires to use the online version. But it is brilliant!
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          • Thanks for pointing out the bug in the current version 🙂 You could try git clone-ing a version from before the bug was introduced, but you’d need to work out which commit introduced the bug. This might, a) be more hassle than it’s worth, and b) remove some other functionalities that you need for your testing. Hopefully the bug will be resolved in the near future 🙂
            – Richard Horrocks
            2 days ago

          • Indeed dev team promised to fix this soon…
            – Rick Park
            2 days ago

          2

          2

          This is a brilliant idea. It is not applicable in this exact moment because the current version, 0.7.5, suffers from a bug in remixd interface that, for the moment, requires to use the online version. But it is brilliant!
          – Rick Park
          2 days ago

          This is a brilliant idea. It is not applicable in this exact moment because the current version, 0.7.5, suffers from a bug in remixd interface that, for the moment, requires to use the online version. But it is brilliant!
          – Rick Park
          2 days ago

          Thanks for pointing out the bug in the current version 🙂 You could try git clone-ing a version from before the bug was introduced, but you’d need to work out which commit introduced the bug. This might, a) be more hassle than it’s worth, and b) remove some other functionalities that you need for your testing. Hopefully the bug will be resolved in the near future 🙂
          – Richard Horrocks
          2 days ago

          Thanks for pointing out the bug in the current version 🙂 You could try git clone-ing a version from before the bug was introduced, but you’d need to work out which commit introduced the bug. This might, a) be more hassle than it’s worth, and b) remove some other functionalities that you need for your testing. Hopefully the bug will be resolved in the near future 🙂
          – Richard Horrocks
          2 days ago

          Indeed dev team promised to fix this soon…
          – Rick Park
          2 days ago

          Indeed dev team promised to fix this soon…
          – Rick Park
          2 days ago

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          Apennine Mountains

          Apennine Mountains
          Monti Appennini
          Monte Pollino (P.N.P.).jpg

          Mt. Pollino inside the Pollino National Park, Calabria
          Highest point
          Peak Corno Grande (Big Horn)
          Elevation 2,912 m (9,554 ft)
          Coordinates 42°28′9″N 13°33′57″E / 42.46917°N 13.56583°E / 42.46917; 13.56583
          Dimensions
          Length 1,200 km (750 mi) northwest to southeast
          Width 250 km (160 mi) southwest to northeast
          Geography
          Italia fisica appennini.png

          Relief Map of the Apennines

          Countries Italy and San Marino
          Range coordinates 43°16.9′N 12°34.9′E / 43.2817°N 12.5817°E / 43.2817; 12.5817Coordinates: 43°16.9′N 12°34.9′E / 43.2817°N 12.5817°E / 43.2817; 12.5817
          Geology
          Age of rock Mesozoic for formation of rock,
          Neogene-Quaternary for orogeny
          Type of rock Apennine fold and thrust belt

          The Apennines[1] or Apennine Mountains (/ˈæpənn/; Greek: Ἀπέννινα ὄρη;[2] Latin: Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;[note 1] Italian: Appennini [appenˈniːni])[3] are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. Since 2000 the Environment Ministry of Italy, following the recommendations of the Apennines Park of Europe Project, has been defining the Apennines System to include the mountains of north Sicily, for a total distance of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi).[4] The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas.

          The etymology most frequently repeated, because of its semantic appropriateness, is that it derives from the Celtic Penn, “mountain, summit”:[3]A-penn-inus, which could have been assigned during the Celtic domination of north Italy in the 4th century BC or before. The name originally applied to the north Apennines. However, historical linguists have never found a derivation with which they all agree.[5] Wilhelm Deecke said:[6][note 2]“…its etymology is doubtful but some derive it from the Ligurian-Celtish Pen or Ben, which means mountain peak.”

          The Apennines also conserve some intact ecosystems, which have survived human intervention. In here there are some of the best preserved forests and montane grasslands in the whole continent, now protected by national parks and, within them, a high diversity of flora and fauna. These mountains are, in fact, one of the last refuges for the big European predators such as the Italian wolf and the marsican brown bear, now extinct in other countries of central Europe.

          The mountains lend their name to the Apennine peninsula, which forms the major part of Italy.[5] They are mostly verdant, although one side of the highest peak, Corno Grande is partially covered by Calderone glacier, the only glacier in the Apennines. It has been receding since 1794.[7] The eastern slopes down to the Adriatic Sea are steep, while the western slopes form foothills on which most of peninsular Italy’s cities are located. The mountains tend to be named from the province or provinces in which they are located; for example, the Ligurian Apennines are in Liguria. As the provincial borders have not always been stable, this practice has resulted in some confusion about exactly where the montane borders are. Often but not always a geographical feature can be found that lends itself to being a border.

          Contents

          • 1 Geography

            • 1.1 Northern Apennines

              • 1.1.1 Ligurian Apennines
              • 1.1.2 Tuscan–Emilian Apennines
            • 1.2 Central Apennines

              • 1.2.1 Umbrian–Marchean Apennines
              • 1.2.2 Abruzzi Apennines
            • 1.3 Southern Apennines

              • 1.3.1 Samnite and Campanian Apennines
              • 1.3.2 Lucan Apennines
              • 1.3.3 Calabrian and Sicilian Apennines
          • 2 Ecology

            • 2.1 Vegetative zones

              • 2.1.1 Ecoregions
              • 2.1.2 Alpine zone
          • 3 Geology

            • 3.1 Formation of rocks
            • 3.2 Apennine orogeny

              • 3.2.1 Compressional zone
              • 3.2.2 Extensional zone
            • 3.3 Stability of terrain
            • 3.4 Glacial ice
          • 4 Major peaks
          • 5 See also
          • 6 Notes
          • 7 References
          • 8 Bibliography
          • 9 External links

          Geography

          The Apennines are divided into three sectors: northern (Italian: Appennino settentrionale), central (Appennino centrale), and southern (Appennino meridionale).[8]

          A number of long hiking trails wind through the Apennines. Of note is European walking route E1 coming from northern Europe and traversing the lengths of the northern and central Apennines. The Grand Italian Trail begins in Trieste and after winding through the Alpine arc traverses the entire Apennine system, Sicily and Sardinia.

          Northern Apennines

          The northern Apennines consist of three sub-chains: the Ligurian (Appennino ligure), Tuscan-Emilian (Appennino toscano-emiliano), and Umbrian Apennines (Appennino umbro).[9]

          Ligurian Apennines

          The plaque marking the Bocchetta di Altare

          The Ligurian Apennines border the Ligurian Sea in the Gulf of Genoa, from about Savona below the upper Bormida River valley to about La Spezia (La Cisa pass) below the upper Magra River valley. The range follows the Gulf of Genoa separating it from the upper Po Valley. The northwestern border follows the line of the Bormida River to Acqui Terme. There the river continues northeast to Alessandria in the Po Valley, but the mountains bend away to the southeast.

          The upper Bormida can be reached by a number of roads proceeding inland at a right angle to the coast southwest of Savona, the chief one being the Autostrada Torino-Savona. They ascend to the Bocchetta di Altare, sometimes called Colle di Cadibona, 436 m (1,430 ft), the border between the Ligurian Alps along the coast to the west and the Ligurian Apennines. A bronze plaque fixed to a stone marks the top of the pass. In the vicinity are fragments of the old road and three ruins of former fortifications.

          At Carcare, the main roads connect with the upper Bormida valley (Bormida di Millare) before turning west. The Scrivia, the Trebbia and the Taro, tributaries of the Po River, drain the northeast slopes. The range contains dozens of peaks. Toward the southern end the Aveto Natural Regional Park includes Monte Penna. Nearby is the highest point of Ligurian Apennines, Monte Maggiorasca at 1,780 m (5,840 ft).[9]

          The main and only feasible overland route connecting the coastal plain of Liguria to the north Italian plain runs through Bocchetta di Altare. It has always been of strategic importance. Defenders of north Italy have had to control it since ancient times, as the various fortifications placed there testify. Trenitalia, the state railway system, highly developed on the coastal plain, now traverses the mountains routinely through a number of railway tunnels, such as the one at Giovi Pass.

          Monte Cimone (2165 m) is the highest mountain of the northern Apennines in the Emilia Romagna

          The southeastern border of the Ligurian Apennines is the Fiume Magra, which projects into the Tyrrhenian Sea south of La Spezia, and the Fiume Taro, which runs in the opposite direction to join the Po River. The divide between the two upper river valleys is the Passo della Cisa (Cisa Pass). Under it (two tunnels) runs the Autostrada della Cisa between Spezia and Parma.

          Tuscan–Emilian Apennines

          Starting at Cisa Pass, the mountain chains turn further to the southeast to cross the peninsula along the border between the Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany regions. They are also named the Tuscan–Emilian Apennines west of the Futa pass and the Tuscan–Romagnol Apennines east of it, or just the Tuscan Apennines.[9] They extend to the upper Tiber River. The highest point is Monte Cimone at 2,165 m (7,103 ft).

          A separate branch, the Apuan Alps, goes to the southwest bordering the coast south of La Spezia. Whether they are to be considered part of the Apennines is a matter of opinion; certainly, they are part of the Apennine System. Topographically only the valley of the River Serchio, which running parallel to the coast turns and exits into the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Pisa, separates the Apuan Alps from the Apennines; geologically the rock is of a slightly different composition: marble. The Roman marble industry was centered at Luna, and is now active in Carrara.

          As the Tuscan Apennines divide the peninsula between the Po Valley and the plains and hills of Tuscany and Lazio, transportation over them is essential to political and economic unity. Historically the Romans used the Via Flaminia between Rome and Rimini. The montane distance between Florence in Tuscany and Bologna in Emilia-Romagna is shorter, but exploitation of it required the conquest of more rugged terrain, which was not feasible for the ancients. Railway lines were constructed over the mountains in the early 19th century but they were of low capacity and unimprovable.

          Since 1856 a series of tunnels have been constructed to conduct “the Bologna-Florence rail line”, which is neither a single line nor a single tunnel. The Porrettana Line went into service in 1864, the Direttissima in 1934 and the High Speed in 1996.[10] A few dozen tunnels support the three of them, the longest on the High-Speed Line being the Voglia Tunnel at 16.757 km (10.412 mi).[11] The longest is on the Direttissima, the Great Apennine Tunnel, which at 18.5 kilometres (11.5 miles) is the longest entirely within Italy, although the Simplon Tunnel, which connects Italy and Switzerland, is longer.[note 3] Automobile traffic is carried by the Autostrada del Sole, Route A1, which goes through numerous shorter tunnels, bypassing an old road, originally Roman, through Futa Pass. In December 2015, a new Route A1 called Variante di Valico was opened after many years of construction consisting of major tunnels (the longest being the new 8.6-kilometre (5.3-mile) ‘Tunel Base’) and new overpasses notably shortening the traveling time between Florence and Bologna by road.
          Inside the Tuscan–Romagnol Apennines are in the southern part also the Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona, Campigna National Park.
          Geographically the southernmost sharp limit of the Tuscan–Romagnol Apennines is the Bocca Serriola pass that is politically in northern Umbria and links Fano and Città di Castello.

          Source of the Tiber. Marked by a Column decorated with an Eagle and Wolf heads – Part of the Apennine fauna and symbols of Rome

          The Tiber River at Rome flows from Monte Fumaiolo in the Tuscan-Romagnol Apennine from northeast to southwest, projecting into the Tyrrhenian Sea at right angles to the shore. The upper Tiber, however, flows from northwest to southeast, gradually turning through one right angle clockwise. The northern Tiber valley is deep and separates the Apennines on the left bank from a lesser range, the Tuscan Anti- or Sub-Apennines on its right.

          Central Apennines

          The Apennine System forms an irregular arc with centers of curvature located in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The northern and southern segments comprise parallel chains that can be viewed as single overall mountain ridges, such as the Ligurian Mountains. The center, being thicker and more complex, is geologically divided into an inner and an outer arc with regard to the centers of curvature. The geologic definition, however, is not the same as the geographic.

          Based on rock type and orogenic incidents, the northern segment of the arc is divided into the Outer Northern Apennines (ONA) and the Inner Northern Apennines (INA).[12] The Central Apennines are divided into the Umbrian–Marchean (Appennino umbro-marchigiano) or Roman Apennines in the north and the Abruzzi Apennines (Appennino abruzzese) in the south.It extends from Bocca Serriola pass in the north to Forlì pass in the south.[9]

          Umbrian–Marchean Apennines

          The west border of the Umbrian-Marchean Apennines (or “Umbro-Marchean”) runs through Cagli. They extend south to the Tronto River, the south border of the ONA.
          The highest peak, Monte Vettore, at 2,478 m (8,130 ft), is part of the Monti Sibillini, incorporated into Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini. Further inland is Parco Sasso Simone e Simoncello[13] and further south Parco naturale regionale Gola della Rossa di Frasassi, in which are the Gola della Rossa (“Canyon of the Red”) and Frasassi Caves. The Italian Park Service calls it the “green heart” of Italy. The region is heavily forested, such as the Riserva Naturale Statale Gola del Furlo, where Furlo Pass on the Via Flaminia is located. Both the Etruscans and the Romans constructed tunnels here.

          Abruzzi Apennines

          Gran Sasso and Campo Imperatore

          The Abruzzi Apennines, located in Abruzzo, Molise (formerly part of Abruzzo) and southeastern Lazio, contain the highest peaks and most rugged terrain of the Apennines. They are known in history as the territory of the Italic peoples first defeated by the city of Rome. Coincidentally they exist in three parallel folds or chains surviving from the orogeny.[9] These extend in a northwest-southeast direction from the River Tronto to the River Sangro, which drain into the Adriatic. The coastal hills of the east extend between San Benedetto del Tronto in the north and Torino di Sangro in the south.

          The eastern chain consists mainly of the southern part of the Monti Sibillini, the Monti della Laga, the Gran Sasso d’Italia Massif and the Majella Massif. Among them are two national parks: Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park and Majella National Park; and the Regional Park of the Monti Simbruini. Gran Sasso contains Corno Grande, the highest peak of the Apennines.

          Majella massif.

          Other features between the western and central ranges are the plain of Rieti, the valley of the Salto, and the Lago Fucino; while between the central and eastern ranges are the valleys of Aquila and Sulmona. The chief rivers on the west are the Nera, with its tributaries the Velino and Salto, and the Aniene, both of which fall into the Tiber. On the east there is at first a succession of small rivers which flow into the Adriatic, from which the highest points of the chain are some 20 km distant, such as the Tronto, Tordino, Vomano and others. The Pescara, which receives the Aterno from the north-west and the Gizio from the south-east, is more important; and so is the Sangro.

          The central Apennines are crossed by the railway from Rome to Pescara via Avezzano and Sulmona: the railway from Orte to Terni (and thence to Foligno) follows the Nera valley; while from Terni a line ascends to the plain of Rieti, and thence crosses the central chain to Aquila, whence it follows the valley of the Aterno to Sulmona. In ancient times the Via Salaria, Via Caecilia and Via Valeria-Claudia all ran from Rome to the Adriatic coast. The volcanic mountains of the province of Rome are separated from the Apennines by the Tiber valley, and the Monti Lepini, part of the Volscian chain, by the valleys of the Sacco and Liri.

          Southern Apennines

          The Mount Pollino

          The Pizzo Carbonara, 6,493 feet (1,979 m), is the highest peak of the Sicilian Appenino siculo, which forms part of the Calabrian southern Apennines.

          The southern Apennines can be divided into four major regions: (1) Samnite Apennines, (2) Campanian Apennines, (3) Lucan Apennines and (4) Calabrian Apennines including the Sicilian Apennines.They extend from Forlì pass towards south.

          Samnite and Campanian Apennines

          In the southern Apennines, to the south of the Sangro valley, the three parallel chains are broken up into smaller groups; among them may be named the Matese, the highest point of which is the Monte Miletto 2,050 metres (6,725 ft). The chief rivers on the south-west are the Liri or Garigliano with its tributary the Sacco, the Volturno, Sebeto, Sarno, on the north the Trigno, Biferno and Fortore.[14]

          The promontory of Monte Gargano, on the east, is completely isolated, and so are the Campanian volcanic arc near Naples. The district is traversed from north-west to south-east by the railway from Sulmona to Benevento and on to Avellino, and from south-west to northeast by the railways from Caianello via Isernia to Campobasso and Termoli, from Caserta to Benevento and Foggia, and from Nocera Inferiore and Avellino to Rocchetta S. Antonio, the junction for Foggia, Spinazzola (for Barletta, Bari, and Taranto) and Potenza. Roman roads followed the same lines as the railways: the Via Appia ran from Capua to Benevento, whence the older road went to Venosa and Taranto and so to Brindisi, while the Via Traiana ran nearly to Foggia and thence to Bari.[14]

          Lucan Apennines

          The valley of the Ofanto, which runs into the Adriatic close to Barletta, marks the northern termination of the first range of the Lucanian Apennines (now Basilicata), which runs from east to west, while south of the valleys of the Sele (on the west) and Basento (on the east)—which form the line followed by the railway from Battipaglia via Potenza to Metaponto—the second range begins to run due north and south as far as the plain of Sibari. The highest point is the Monte Pollino 2,233 metres (7,325 ft). The chief rivers are the Sele—joined by the Negro and Calore—on the west, and the Bradano, Basento, Agri, Sinni on the east, which flow into the gulf of Taranto; to the south of the last-named river there are only unimportant streams flowing into the sea east and west, inasmuch as here the width of the peninsula diminishes to some 64 kilometres (40 mi).[14]

          Calabrian and Sicilian Apennines

          The railway running south from Sicignano to Lagonegro, ascending the valley of the Negro, is planned to extend to Cosenza, along the line followed by the ancient Via Popilia, which beyond Cosenza reached the west coast at Terina and thence followed it to Reggio. The Via Herculia, a branch of the Via Traiana, ran from Aequum Tuticum to the ancient Nerulum. At the narrowest point the plain of Sibari, through which the rivers Coscile and Crati flow to the sea, occurs on the east coast, extending halfway across the peninsula. Here the limestone Apennines proper cease and the granite mountains of Calabria begin.[14]

          The first group extends as far as the isthmus formed by the gulfs of South Eufemia and Squillace; it is known as the Sila, and the highest point reached is 1,930 metres (6,330 ft) (the Botte Donato). The forests which covered it in ancient times supplied the Greeks and Sicilians with timber for shipbuilding. The railway from South Eufemia to Catanzaro and Catanzaro Marina crosses the isthmus, and an ancient road may have run from Squillace to Monteleone. The second group extends to the south end of the Italian Peninsula, culminating in the Aspromonte (1,960 metres (6,420 ft)) to the east of Reggio di Calabria. In both groups the rivers are quite unimportant.[14] Finally, the Calabrian southern Apennine Mountains extend along the northern coast of Sicily (the Sicilian Apennines, Italian Appennino siculo)—Pizzo Carbonara (6,493 feet (1,979 m)) being the highest peak.

          Ecology

          Vegetative zones

          Ecoregions

          • north and central: Apennine deciduous montane forest (temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome)
          • north through south: Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests (Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome)
          • south: South Apennine mixed montane forests (also a Mediterranean biome)

          The number of vascular plant species in the Apennines has been estimated at 5,599. Of these, 728 (23.6%) are in the treeline ecotone. Hemicryptophytes predominate in the entire Apennine chain.[15]

          Alpine zone

          The tree line ecotone is mainly grasslands of the Montane grasslands and shrublands biome; with Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, and Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub below it. The tree line in the Apennines can be found in the range 1,600 m (5,200 ft) to 2,000 m (6,600 ft).[16] About 5% of the map area covered by the Apennines is at or above the tree line—or in the treeline ecotone. The snow line is at about 3,200 m (10,500 ft), leaving the Apennines below it, except for the one remaining glacier. Snow may fall from October to May. Rainfall increases with latitude.[7] The range’s climates, depending on elevation and latitude, are the Oceanic climate and Mediterranean climate.

          Geology

          The particular shape of the Pietra di Bismantova, Tuscan Apennines, Emilia-Romagna region

          A pillow lava from an ophiolite sequence, Northern Apennines, Italy.

          The Apennines were created in the Apennine orogeny beginning in the early Neogene (about 20 mya, the middle Miocene) and continuing today.[17] Geographically they are partially or appear to be continuous with the Alpine system. Prior to the explosion of data on the topic from about the year 2000 many authors took the approach that the Apennines had the same origin as the Alps. Even today some authors use the term Alpine-Apennine system. They are not, however, the same system and did not have the same origin. The Alps were millions of years old before the Apennines rose from the sea.

          Both the Alps and the Apennines contain primarily sedimentary rock resulting from sedimentation of the ancient Tethys Sea in the Mesozoic.[citation needed] The northward movement of the African Plate and its collision with the European Plate then caused the Alpine Orogeny, beginning in the late Mesozoic. The band of mountains created extends from Spain to Turkey in a roughly east-west direction and includes the Alps. The Apennines are much younger, extend from northwest to southeast, and are not a displacement of the Alpine chain.

          The key evidence of the difference is the geologic behavior of the Po Valley in northern Italy. Compressional forces have been acting from north to south in the Alps and from south to north in the Apennines, but instead of being squeezed into mountains the valley has been subsiding at 1 to 4 mm (0.16 in) per year since about 25 mya, before the Apennines existed.[18] It is now known to be not an erosional feature but is a filled portion of the Adriatic Trench, called the Adriatic foredeep after its function as a subduction zone was discovered. The Alps and the Apennines were always separated by this trench and were never part of the same system.[citation needed]

          Formation of rocks

          Apennine orogeny

          The Apennine orogeny is a type of mountain-building in which two simpler types are combined in an apparently paradoxical configuration. Sometimes this is referred to as “syn-orogenic extension”, but the term implies that the two processes occur simultaneously during time.
          Some scientists imagine that this is relatively rare but not unique in mountain building, whereas others imagine that this is fairly common in all mountain belts.

          The RETREAT Project[note 4] have this specific feature as one of their focus points [19]
          In essence the east side of Italy features a fold and thrust belt raised by compressional forces acting under the Adriatic Sea. This side has been called the “Apennine-Adriatic Compressional Zone” or the “Apennines Convergence Zone.” On the west side of Italy fault-block mountains prevail, created by a spreading or extension of the crust under the Tyrrhenian Sea. This side is called the “Tyrrhenian Extensional Zone.” The mountains of Italy are of paradoxical provenience, having to derive from both compression and extension:

          “The paradox of how contraction and extension can occur simultaneously in convergent mountain belts remains a fundamental and largely unresolved problem in continental dynamics.”

          Both the folded and the fault-block systems include parallel mountain chains. In the folded system anticlines erode into the highest and longest massifs of the Apennines.

          According to the older theories (originating from the 1930s to 1970s) of Dutch geologists, including Van Bemmelen, compression and extension can and should occur simultaneously at different depths in a mountain belt. In these theories, these different levels are called Stockwerke. More recent work in geotectonics and geodynamics of the same school of geoscientists (Utrecht and Amsterdam University) by Vlaar, Wortel, and Cloetingh, and their disciples, extended these concepts even further into a temporal realm. They demonstrated that internal and external forces acting upon the mountain belt (e.g., slab pull and intra-plate stress field modulations due to large scale reorganisations of the tectonic plates) result in both longer episodes and shorter phases of general extension and compression acting both upon and inside mountain belts and tectonic arches (See e.g. for extensive reviews, bibliography and discussions on the literature:
          Van Dijk (1992),[20]
          Van Dijk and Okkes (1991),[21]
          Van Dijk & Scheepers (1995),[22]
          and Van Dijk et al. (2000a)[23]).

          Compressional zone

          The gradual subsidence of the Po Valley (including that of Venice) and the folding of the mountains of eastern Italy have been investigated using seismic wave analysis of the “Apennine Subduction System.”[19] Along the Adriatic side of Italy the floor of the Adriatic Sea, referred to as the “Adriatic lithosphere” or the “Adriatic plate,” terms whose precise meaning is the subject of ongoing research, is dipping under the slab on which the Apennines have been folded by compressional forces.

          Subduction occurs along a fault, along which a hanging wall, or overriding slab is thrust over an overridden slab, also called the subducting slab. The fault that acts as the subduction interface is at the bottom of the Apennine wedge, characterized by a deep groove in the surface, typically filled with sediment, as sedimentation here occurs at a much faster rate than subduction.[citation needed] In north Italy the dip of this interface is 30° to 40° at a depth of 80–90 km.[24]

          The strike of the Apennine subduction zone forms a long, irregular arc with centers of curvature in the Tyrrhenian Sea following the hanging wall over which the mountains have been raised; i.e., the eastern wall of the mountains. It runs from near the base of the Ligurian Apennines in the Po Valley along the margin of the mountains to the Adriatic, along the coastal deeps of the Adriatic shore, strikes inland at Monte Gargano cutting off Apulia, out to sea again through the Gulf of Taranto, widely around the rest of Italy and Sicily and across inland north Africa.[24] The upper mantle above 250 km (160 mi) deep is broken into the “Northern Apennines Arc” and the “Calabrian Arc”, with compressional forces acting in different directions radially toward the arcs’ centers of curvature. The overall plate tectonics of these events has been modeled in different ways but decisive data is still missing. The tectonics, however, are not the same as those which created the Alps.[citation needed]

          Extensional zone

          The west side of Italy is given to a fault-block system, where the crust, extended by the lengthening mantle below, thinned, broke along roughly parallel fault lines, and the blocks alternatively sank into grabens or were raised by isostasy into horsts. This system prevails from Corsica eastward to the valley of the Tiber River, the last rift valley in that direction. It runs approximately across the direction of extension. In the fault-block system the ridges are lower and are more steep-sided, since the walls are formed by faults. Geographically they are not considered part of the Apennines proper but are termed “sub-apennine” or “anti-apennine.” These mountains are found mainly in Tuscany, Lazio and Campania.

          Stability of terrain

          The terrain of the Apennines (as well as that of the Alps) is to a large degree unstable due to various types of landslides, including falls and slides of rocks and debris, flows of earth and mud, and sink holes. The Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale), a government agency founded in 2008 by combining three older agencies, published in that year a special report, Landslides in Italy, summarizing the results of the IFFI Project (Il Progetto IFFI), the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario dei Fenomeni Franosi in Italia), an extensive survey of historical landslides in Italy undertaken by the government starting in 1997. On December 31, 2007, it had studied and mapped 482,272 landslides over 20,500 km2 (7,900 sq mi). Its major statistics are the Landslide Index (LI here), the ratio of the landslide area to the total area of a region, the Landslide Index in Mountainous-Hilly Areas (here LIMH) and the Density of Landslides, which is the number per 100 km2 (39 sq mi).

          Italy as a whole has a LI of 6.8, a LIMH of 9.1 and a density of 160. Lombardia (LI of 13.9), Emilia-Romagna (11.4), Marches (19.4), Molise (14.0), Valle d’Aosta (16.0) and Piemonte (9.1) are significantly higher.[25] The most unstable terrain in the Apennines when the landslide sites are plotted on the map are in order from most unstable the eastern flanks of the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, the Central Apennines and the eastern flank of the southern Apennines. Instability there is comparable to the Alps bordering the Po Valley. The most stable terrain is on the western side: Liguria, Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio. The Apennines are slumping away to the northeast into the Po Valley and the Adriatic foredeep; that is, the zone where the Adriatic floor is being subducted under Italy. Slides with large translational or rotational surface movements are most common; e.g., a whole slope slumps into its valley, placing the population there at risk.

          Glacial ice

          Glaciers no longer exist in the Apennines outside the Gran Sasso d’Italia massif. However, post-Pliocene moraines have been observed in Basilicata.

          Major peaks

          The Apennines include about 21 peaks over 1,900 m (6,200 ft), the approximate tree line (counting only the top peak in each massif). Most of these peaks are located in the Central Apennines.[16]

          Corno Grande

          Monte Vettore

          Serra Dolcedorme, the highest summit in Southern Apennine

          Name Height
          Corno Grande
          (Gran Sasso massif)
          2,912 m (9,554 ft)
          Monte Amaro
          (Majella massif)
          2,793 m (9,163 ft)
          Monte Velino 2,486 m (8,156 ft)
          Monte Vettore 2,476 m (8,123 ft)
          Pizzo di Sevo 2,419 m (7,936 ft)
          Serra Dolcedorme
          (Pollino massif)
          2,267 m (7,438 ft)
          Monte Meta 2,241 m (7,352 ft)
          Monte Terminillo 2,217 m (7,274 ft)
          Monte Sibilla 2,173 m (7,129 ft)
          Monte Cimone 2,165 m (7,103 ft)
          Monte Viglio 2,156 m (7,073 ft)
          Monte Cusna 2,121 m (6,959 ft)
          Montagne del Morrone 2,061 m (6,762 ft)
          Monte Prado 2,053 m (6,736 ft)
          Monte Miletto
          (Matese massif)
          2,050 m (6,730 ft)
          Alpe di Succiso 2,017 m (6,617 ft)
          Monte Cotento
          (Simbruini range)
          2,015 m (6,611 ft)
          Monte Sirino 2,005 m (6,578 ft)
          Montalto
          (Aspromonte massif)
          1,955 m (6,414 ft)
          Monte Pisanino 1,946 m (6,385 ft)
          Monte Botte Donato
          (Sila plateau)
          1,928 m (6,325 ft)
          Corno alle Scale 1,915 m (6,283 ft)
          Monte Alto 1,904 m (6,247 ft)
          Monte Cervati 1,898 m (6,227 ft)
          La Nuda 1,894 m (6,214 ft)
          Monte Maggio 1,853 m (6,079 ft)
          Monte Maggiorasca 1,799 m (5,902 ft)
          Monte Giovarello 1,760 m (5,770 ft)
          Monte Catria 1,701 m (5,581 ft)
          Monte Gottero 1,640 m (5,380 ft)
          Monte Pennino 1,560 m (5,120 ft)
          Monte Nerone 1,525 m (5,003 ft)
          Monte Fumaiolo 1,407 m (4,616 ft)

          See also

          • Monti Simbruini – Apennines plants and animals list
          • Geography of Italy
          • List of national parks of Italy
          • List of longest tunnels
          • List of highest paved roads in Europe
          • List of mountain passes
          • TaskForceMajella

          Notes

          1. ^ Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used “mountain” in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, “the Apennine mountain” refers to the entire chain and is translated “the Apennine mountains”. The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains.
          2. ^ A large number of place names reflect pen: Penarrig, Penbrynn, Pencoid, Penmon, Pentir, etc. and ben: Beanach, Benmore, Benabuird, Benan, Bencruachan, etc. (Blackie 1887, pp. 21, 154). In one derivation Pen/Ben is cognate with Old Irish cenn, “head”, but an original *kwen– would be required, which is typologically not found in languages that feature labio-velars. Windisch and Brugmann reconstructed Indo-European *kwi-, deriving also the Greek Pindus Mountains, but *kwen-<*kwi- is not explained by any rule (“ceann”. MacBain’s Dictionary..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}). Accordingly “pin”. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. has it cognate with English “pin” and “*pet-“. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Indo-European Roots. goes so far as to suggest pin and pen come from Latin pinna, “feather”, in the sense of the horn of the quill. This view has the word originating in Latium inconsistently with the theory of the northern origin. None of these derivations are unquestionably accepted.
          3. ^ Claims of being the longest or second-longest in the world have been soon outdated. See List of longest tunnels.
          4. ^ The Retreating-trench, extension and accretion (RETREAT) Project is a study conducted by a consortium of scientific organizations in different countries including in the US the National Science Foundation.

          References

          1. ^ Apennines, Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition, on-line on www.merriam-webster.com
          2. ^ Strabo, Geography, book 5
          3. ^ ab
            Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles (1879). “Apenninus”. A Latin Dictionary. Oxford; Medford: Clarendon Press; Perseus Digital Library.
          4. ^
            Gambino, Roberto; Romano, Bernardino (2000–2001). Territorial strategies and environmental continuity in mountain systems: The case of the Apennines (Italy) (PDF). World Commission on Protected Areas.
          5. ^ ab Lake 1911, p. 161.
          6. ^ Deecke 1904, p. 23
          7. ^ ab Pederotti 2003, p. 75
          8. ^ Martini 2001, p. 3.
          9. ^ abcde Merriam-Webster 2001, p. 59.
          10. ^ Lunardi 2008, pp. 413–414.
          11. ^ Lunardi 2008, pp. 425–437.
          12. ^ Barchi 2001, p. 216.
          13. ^ “Parks, Reserves and other Protected Areas in the Marches”. Parks.it. 1995–2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
          14. ^ abcde Lake 1911, p. 162.
          15. ^ Pederotti 2003, p. 79.
          16. ^ ab Pederotti 2003, p. 73.
          17. ^ James, Kristen (2004). Determining the source for the magmas of Monte Amiata (Central Italy) using strontium, neodymium, and lead isotopes (PDF). Carleton Geology Department: Geology Comps Papers. Liberal Arts Scholarly Repository (LASR). pp. 3–4. During the Neogene and into the Quaternary the region around Amiata underwent a general NNE contraction …. This compression also created the Apennine orogeny of east-central Italy …. This area was brought above sea level during a doming phase during the Middle Pliocene.
            [permanent dead link]
          18. ^ Ollier, Cliff; Pain, Colin (2000). The origin of mountains. London: Routledge. p. 77. Apennine thrusts move in from the south, and Southern Alps thrust in from the north, but instead of collisional compression there is subsidence and horizontal sedimentation.
          19. ^ ab Margheriti 2006, p. 1120.
          20. ^ van Dijk, J.P. (1992). “Late Neogene fore-arc basin evolution in the Calabrian Arc (Central Mediterranean). Tectonic sequence stratigraphy and dynamic geohistory. With special reference to the geology of Central Calabria”. Geologica Ultraiectina. 92: 288.
          21. ^ van Dijk, J.P.; Okkes, F.W.M. (1991). “Neogene tectonostratigraphy and kinematics of Calabrian Basins. implications for the geodynamics of the Central Mediterranean”. Tectonophysics. 196 (1–2): 23–60. Bibcode:1991Tectp.196…23V. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(91)90288-4.
          22. ^ van Dijk, J.P.; Scheepers, P.J.J. (1995). “Neogene rotations in the Calabrian Arc. Implications for a Pliocene-Recent geodynamic scenario for the Central Mediterranean”. Earth Sci. Rev. 39 (3–4): 207–246. Bibcode:1995ESRv…39..207V. doi:10.1016/0012-8252(95)00009-7.
          23. ^
            van Dijk, J.P.; Bello, M.; Brancaleoni, G.P.; Cantarella, G.; Costa, V.; Frixa, A.; Golfetto, F.; Merlini, S.; Riva, M.; Toricelli, S.; Toscano, C.; Zerilli, A. (2000). “A new structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc”. Tectonophysics. 324 (4): 267–320. Bibcode:2000Tectp.324..267V. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00139-6.
          24. ^ ab Margheriti 2006, p. 1124.
          25. ^ Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla (2008). “Landslides in Italy: Special Report 2008” (PDF). Rome: Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA). pp. 15–16. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-07-17.

          Bibliography

          • “Apennines”. Merriam-Webster’s Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. 2001.
          • Blackie, Christina; Blackie, John Stuart (1887). Geographical etymology, a dictionary of place-names giving their derivations. London: Murray.
          • Deecke, W; Nesbitt, H A (Translator) (1904). Italy; a popular account of the country, its people, and its institutions (including Malta and Sardinia). London; New York: Macmillan Co.; S. Sonnenschein & Co.
          • Lunardi, Pietro (2008). Design and construction of tunnels: analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils (ADECO-RS). Berlin: Springer.
          • Margheriti, Lucia; et al. (August–October 2006). “The subduction structure of the Northern Apennines: results for the RETREAT seismic deployment” (PDF). Annals of Geophysics. 49 (4/5). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-19.
          • Martini, I. Peter; Vai, Gian Battista (2001). “Geomorphologic Setting”. In Martini, I. Peter; Vai, Gian Battista. Anatomy of an orogen: the Apennines and adjacent Mediterranean basins. Dordrecht [u.a.]: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 1–4..
          • Barchi, Massimiliano; Landuzzi, Alberto; Minelli, Giorgio; Pialli, Giampaolo (2001). “Inner Northern Apennines”. In Martini, I. Peter; Vai, Gian Battista. Anatomy of an orogen: the Apennines and adjacent Mediterranean basins. Dordrecht [u.a.]: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 215–254..
          • Pedrotti, F.; Gafta, D. (2003). “The High Mountain Flora and Vegetation of the Apennines and the Italian Alps”. In Nagy, László; Grabherr, G.; Körner, Ch.; Thompson, D.B.A. Alpine biodiversity in Europe. Ecological studies, 167. Berlin, Heidelberg [u.a.]: Springer-Verlag. pp. 73–84..
          Attribution
          •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lake, Philip (1911). “Apennines”. In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 161–163.

          External links

          • “Italy”. Catholic Online. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
          • “Ligurian Apennine”. Summit Post. 2006. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
          • “Italian Cultural Landscapes: wood-pasture and wood-meadow in the Ligurian-Tuscan-Aemilian Apennines, Italy”. The ECL project. Archived from the original on 17 September 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
          • “Appenine deciduous montane forests”. Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
          • Irlam, Michael J. (2009). “The Great Apennine Tunnel”. Mike’s Railway History. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
          • “10th Mountain Division – The Formative World War II Years”. Dartmouth College Class of 1965. 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2010.


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          Monti Reatini

          Monte Reatini
          Terminillo.JPG
          Highest point
          Elevation 2,217 m (7,274 ft)
          Coordinates 42°29′N 13°00′E / 42.483°N 13.000°E / 42.483; 13.000Coordinates: 42°29′N 13°00′E / 42.483°N 13.000°E / 42.483; 13.000
          Geography
          Location Italy
          Parent range Abruzzi Apennines

          Monti Reatini is a mountain range in the central Apennines, Italy.

          The highest peak is the Monte Terminillo (2217 m), home to ski resorts and a favorite destination of tourism

          The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

          How can I correct this switch case in Java?

          2

          So I’ve been working on this code for a while and it has me a bit lost. Keep in mind I am extremely new to Java and so I’m a bit slow on the uptake. I have created shape classes that implement an interface with getArea, getPerimeter and getDescription methods. There are multiple shapes but that isn’t really where the problem is. The problem comes when I attempt to implement switch cases to allow the user to choose which shape he or she wants to add. I am getting the same message as many times as the Array of shapes will allow the address of the Shape I try to add. I realize the mistake I’m making is most likely a beginner one by I would really appreciate some help, Thank you. Also if you could give me a clue on how to sort the Shapes by their Area it would be greatly appreciated.

          public class ShapeApp2 {
          
          /**
           * @param args the command line arguments
           */
          
          public static void main(String args) {
               Shape test = new Shape[10];
               System.out.println("Choose a shape or type stop to break away?");
               Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
               String Shape = sc.nextLine();
          
               for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
          
               switch (Shape) {
                   case "Rectangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Rectangle");
                       test[i] = new Rectangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Square":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Square");
                       test[i] = new Square();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;         
                   case "Equilateral Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Equilateral Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Equilateral_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Right Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Right Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Right_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Isosceles Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Isosceles Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Isosceles_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Scalene Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Scalene Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Scalene_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Stop":
                       break;
                }
                   System.out.println(test[i]);
               }
          
          }
          

          }

          Also here’s a couple of the Shape Classes for context.

          package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Rectangle implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Rectangle(){
                  length = 4.0;
                  width = 5.0;
                  shapeName = "Rectangle";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          
          
          
           package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Square implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Square(){
                  length = 8.0;
                  width = 8.0;
                  shapeName = "Square";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          

          share|improve this question

          • 2

            You currently ask for user input a single time before you enter the loop, so it never changes afterwards. You have to move sc.nextLine() inside the loop, so the user is asked again each iteration.
            – QBrute
            Nov 11 at 0:13

          2

          So I’ve been working on this code for a while and it has me a bit lost. Keep in mind I am extremely new to Java and so I’m a bit slow on the uptake. I have created shape classes that implement an interface with getArea, getPerimeter and getDescription methods. There are multiple shapes but that isn’t really where the problem is. The problem comes when I attempt to implement switch cases to allow the user to choose which shape he or she wants to add. I am getting the same message as many times as the Array of shapes will allow the address of the Shape I try to add. I realize the mistake I’m making is most likely a beginner one by I would really appreciate some help, Thank you. Also if you could give me a clue on how to sort the Shapes by their Area it would be greatly appreciated.

          public class ShapeApp2 {
          
          /**
           * @param args the command line arguments
           */
          
          public static void main(String args) {
               Shape test = new Shape[10];
               System.out.println("Choose a shape or type stop to break away?");
               Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
               String Shape = sc.nextLine();
          
               for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
          
               switch (Shape) {
                   case "Rectangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Rectangle");
                       test[i] = new Rectangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Square":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Square");
                       test[i] = new Square();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;         
                   case "Equilateral Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Equilateral Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Equilateral_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Right Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Right Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Right_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Isosceles Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Isosceles Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Isosceles_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Scalene Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Scalene Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Scalene_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Stop":
                       break;
                }
                   System.out.println(test[i]);
               }
          
          }
          

          }

          Also here’s a couple of the Shape Classes for context.

          package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Rectangle implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Rectangle(){
                  length = 4.0;
                  width = 5.0;
                  shapeName = "Rectangle";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          
          
          
           package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Square implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Square(){
                  length = 8.0;
                  width = 8.0;
                  shapeName = "Square";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          

          share|improve this question

          • 2

            You currently ask for user input a single time before you enter the loop, so it never changes afterwards. You have to move sc.nextLine() inside the loop, so the user is asked again each iteration.
            – QBrute
            Nov 11 at 0:13

          2

          2

          2

          So I’ve been working on this code for a while and it has me a bit lost. Keep in mind I am extremely new to Java and so I’m a bit slow on the uptake. I have created shape classes that implement an interface with getArea, getPerimeter and getDescription methods. There are multiple shapes but that isn’t really where the problem is. The problem comes when I attempt to implement switch cases to allow the user to choose which shape he or she wants to add. I am getting the same message as many times as the Array of shapes will allow the address of the Shape I try to add. I realize the mistake I’m making is most likely a beginner one by I would really appreciate some help, Thank you. Also if you could give me a clue on how to sort the Shapes by their Area it would be greatly appreciated.

          public class ShapeApp2 {
          
          /**
           * @param args the command line arguments
           */
          
          public static void main(String args) {
               Shape test = new Shape[10];
               System.out.println("Choose a shape or type stop to break away?");
               Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
               String Shape = sc.nextLine();
          
               for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
          
               switch (Shape) {
                   case "Rectangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Rectangle");
                       test[i] = new Rectangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Square":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Square");
                       test[i] = new Square();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;         
                   case "Equilateral Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Equilateral Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Equilateral_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Right Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Right Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Right_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Isosceles Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Isosceles Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Isosceles_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Scalene Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Scalene Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Scalene_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Stop":
                       break;
                }
                   System.out.println(test[i]);
               }
          
          }
          

          }

          Also here’s a couple of the Shape Classes for context.

          package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Rectangle implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Rectangle(){
                  length = 4.0;
                  width = 5.0;
                  shapeName = "Rectangle";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          
          
          
           package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Square implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Square(){
                  length = 8.0;
                  width = 8.0;
                  shapeName = "Square";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          

          share|improve this question

          So I’ve been working on this code for a while and it has me a bit lost. Keep in mind I am extremely new to Java and so I’m a bit slow on the uptake. I have created shape classes that implement an interface with getArea, getPerimeter and getDescription methods. There are multiple shapes but that isn’t really where the problem is. The problem comes when I attempt to implement switch cases to allow the user to choose which shape he or she wants to add. I am getting the same message as many times as the Array of shapes will allow the address of the Shape I try to add. I realize the mistake I’m making is most likely a beginner one by I would really appreciate some help, Thank you. Also if you could give me a clue on how to sort the Shapes by their Area it would be greatly appreciated.

          public class ShapeApp2 {
          
          /**
           * @param args the command line arguments
           */
          
          public static void main(String args) {
               Shape test = new Shape[10];
               System.out.println("Choose a shape or type stop to break away?");
               Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
               String Shape = sc.nextLine();
          
               for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
          
               switch (Shape) {
                   case "Rectangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Rectangle");
                       test[i] = new Rectangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Square":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Square");
                       test[i] = new Square();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;         
                   case "Equilateral Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Equilateral Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Equilateral_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Right Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Right Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Right_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Isosceles Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen an Isosceles Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Isosceles_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Scalene Triangle":
                       System.out.println("You have chosen a Scalene Triangle");
                       test[i] = new Scalene_Triangle();
                       System.out.println("Enter another one now");
                       break;
                   case "Stop":
                       break;
                }
                   System.out.println(test[i]);
               }
          
          }
          

          }

          Also here’s a couple of the Shape Classes for context.

          package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Rectangle implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Rectangle(){
                  length = 4.0;
                  width = 5.0;
                  shapeName = "Rectangle";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          
          
          
           package shapeapp2;
          
          /**
           *
           * @author my-pc
           */
          public class Square implements Shape {
              private double length;
              private double width;
              private String shapeName;
              public Square(){
                  length = 8.0;
                  width = 8.0;
                  shapeName = "Square";
              }
               public double getArea(){
                   double Area;
                   Area = length * width;
                   return Area;
               }
               public double getPerimeter() {
                   double Perimeter;
                   Perimeter = (2*length) + (2*width);
                   return Perimeter;
               }
               public String getDescription() {
                   return shapeName;
               }
          }
          

          java sorting switch-statement

          share|improve this question

          share|improve this question

          share|improve this question

          share|improve this question

          asked Nov 11 at 0:11

          C Jones

          81

          81

          • 2

            You currently ask for user input a single time before you enter the loop, so it never changes afterwards. You have to move sc.nextLine() inside the loop, so the user is asked again each iteration.
            – QBrute
            Nov 11 at 0:13

          • 2

            You currently ask for user input a single time before you enter the loop, so it never changes afterwards. You have to move sc.nextLine() inside the loop, so the user is asked again each iteration.
            – QBrute
            Nov 11 at 0:13

          2

          2

          You currently ask for user input a single time before you enter the loop, so it never changes afterwards. You have to move sc.nextLine() inside the loop, so the user is asked again each iteration.
          – QBrute
          Nov 11 at 0:13

          You currently ask for user input a single time before you enter the loop, so it never changes afterwards. You have to move sc.nextLine() inside the loop, so the user is asked again each iteration.
          – QBrute
          Nov 11 at 0:13

          1 Answer
          1

          active

          oldest

          votes

          1

          You are only reading the shape from the user once before the loop. You wanted to read it in the loop. That’s the only thing that would make sense.

          String Shape = sc.nextLine();
          for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
          

          should be

          for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
              String Shape = sc.nextLine();
          

          Also, you should rename that variable. Shape looks like a classname.

          share|improve this answer

            Your Answer

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            1

            You are only reading the shape from the user once before the loop. You wanted to read it in the loop. That’s the only thing that would make sense.

            String Shape = sc.nextLine();
            for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
            

            should be

            for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
                String Shape = sc.nextLine();
            

            Also, you should rename that variable. Shape looks like a classname.

            share|improve this answer

              1

              You are only reading the shape from the user once before the loop. You wanted to read it in the loop. That’s the only thing that would make sense.

              String Shape = sc.nextLine();
              for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
              

              should be

              for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
                  String Shape = sc.nextLine();
              

              Also, you should rename that variable. Shape looks like a classname.

              share|improve this answer

                1

                1

                1

                You are only reading the shape from the user once before the loop. You wanted to read it in the loop. That’s the only thing that would make sense.

                String Shape = sc.nextLine();
                for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
                

                should be

                for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
                    String Shape = sc.nextLine();
                

                Also, you should rename that variable. Shape looks like a classname.

                share|improve this answer

                You are only reading the shape from the user once before the loop. You wanted to read it in the loop. That’s the only thing that would make sense.

                String Shape = sc.nextLine();
                for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
                

                should be

                for (int i=0; i<test.length; i++) {
                    String Shape = sc.nextLine();
                

                Also, you should rename that variable. Shape looks like a classname.

                share|improve this answer

                share|improve this answer

                share|improve this answer

                answered Nov 11 at 0:13

                Elliott Frisch

                152k1389178

                152k1389178

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                    Kent County Cricket Club

                    Kent County Cricket Club
                    Kent CCC logo.svg
                    One-day name Kent Spitfires
                    Personnel
                    Captain England Sam Billings
                    Coach England Matt Walker
                    Chief executive Simon Storey[1]
                    Team information
                    Founded 1842
                    Home ground St Lawrence Ground
                    Capacity 7,000
                    History
                    First-class debut All-England
                    in 1842
                    at Bromley
                    Championship wins 7 (1 shared)
                    One Day Cup wins 2
                    National League wins 5
                    B&H Cup wins 3
                    Twenty20 Cup wins 1
                    Official website: Official website

                    Kent County Cricket Club is one of the eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Kent. The club was first founded in 1842 but teams representing the county have played top-class cricket since the early 18th century and the club has always held first-class status. Kent have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. The club’s limited overs team is called the Kent Spitfires after the Supermarine Spitfire.

                    The county has won the County Championship seven times, including one shared victory. Four wins came in the period between 1906 and 1913 with the other three coming during the 1970s when Kent also dominated one-day cricket cup competitions. A total of eleven one-day cricket cup victories include eight between 1967 and 1978, with the last trophy won by the club coming in the 2007 Twenty20 Cup.

                    The club plays most of its home matches at the St Lawrence Ground in Canterbury, which hosts Canterbury Cricket Week, the oldest cricket festival in England. It also plays some home matches at the County Cricket Ground, Beckenham and the Nevill Ground, Royal Tunbridge Wells which hosts Tunbridge Wells Cricket Week.

                    Kent also field a women’s team in the Women’s County Championship. The team has won the Championship a record seven times, most recently in 2016, and the Women’s T20 title three times, most recently also in 2016. It has traditionally played matches at the Polo Farm in Canterbury, but since 2016 has moved to be based mainly at Beckenham.

                    Contents

                    • 1 History

                      • 1.1 Early county teams to 1842
                      • 1.2 The first county clubs: 1842–1870
                      • 1.3 A single county club: 1870–1914
                      • 1.4 Consistency but no Championships: 1919–1939
                      • 1.5 Post war rebuilding and the Second Golden Age: 1946–1978
                      • 1.6 Recent history
                    • 2 Grounds
                    • 3 Players

                      • 3.1 Kent cricket legends’ walkway
                      • 3.2 Captains
                      • 3.3 Current squad
                    • 4 Coaching staff
                    • 5 Records
                    • 6 Kent Women
                    • 7 Kent Cricket Academy
                    • 8 Honours

                      • 8.1 First XI honours
                      • 8.2 Second XI honours
                      • 8.3 Women’s honours
                    • 9 Notes
                    • 10 References
                    • 11 Further reading
                    • 12 External links

                    History

                    Cricket is generally believed to have originated out of children’s bat and ball games in the areas of the Weald and North and South Downs in Kent and Sussex.[2][3][4] The two counties and Surrey were the first centres of the game and the earliest known organised match involving adult players took place in Kent in about 1610 at Chevening,[5] with village cricket developing in the area during the 17th century.[2][4]

                    Early county teams to 1842

                    A newspaper report recorded an 11-a-side match played for a wager of 11 guineas a man, probably at Town Malling, between West Kent and Chatham in 1705, the first properly recorded cricket match in the county.[6][7][8][9] Four years later the earliest known inter-county match took place when a Kent side and one from Surrey played against each other on Dartford Brent.[10][11]Dartford was an important club in the first half of the 18th century.[12][13] It came under the patronage of Edwin Stead through the 1720s and its team began to become rather more representative of Kent as a county,[14][A] often playing against teams from Sussex.[18] There were three Kent v Sussex matches in 1728 and Stead’s team won them all. After the third win, a newspaper reported the outcome as “the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex”.[10][19][20] This proclamation of Kent’s superiority is the first time that the concept of a “Champion County” can be seen in the sources and it is augmented by comments made in other newspaper reports in the next two years.[19][21][22][23]

                    Fuller Pilch, who was signed by the Town Malling club

                    In July 1739, the strength of Kent as a county team was recognised by the formation for the first time of an All-England team to play against them. Kent won the first All-England match and drew the second.[24][25][26] In 1744, the year in which the Laws of Cricket were first published as a code, Kent met All-England four times including the famous encounter on Monday, 18 June at the Artillery Ground which was commemorated in a poem by James Love.[27][28] Under the 3rd Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann, Kent continued to field strong teams through the last quarter of the 18th century, and were, along with Surrey, the main challengers to Hampshire whose team was organised by the Hambledon Club.[23] Teams, which were not always wholly representative of the county itself,[15][16] played numerous inter-county matches through the 1770s and 1780s, mostly against Hampshire and Surrey.[29][30][31] Inter-county cricket ceased during the Napoleonic Wars, probably due to a lack of investment,[32] although Kent teams played a few matches[B] and club cricket continued.[36] County matches were not resurrected until 1825 when Kent met Sussex at Brighton’s Royal New Ground.[37][38]

                    By the 1830s Kent sides began to dominate English cricket, winning 98 matches during the period[9][18] and being declared the leading county side for six seasons out of the seven between 1837 and 1843.[39] During this period the formation of county sides was initially focussed on Town Malling Cricket Club, backed by lawyers Thomas Selby and Silas Norton alongside William Harris, 2nd Baron Harris.[8][40][41] Selby and Norton recruited “the best batsman in England”,[42]Fuller Pilch from Norfolk, to play at Town Malling, maintain the cricket ground and run the connected public house.[43] Alongside other players such as Alfred Mynn, Nicholas Felix, Ned Wenman and William Hillyer, Kent teams selected by Selby played eleven matches at Town Malling between 1836 and 1841.[18][41] The expense of running county games meant that Town Malling proved too small to support a county club, despite the large attendances that games attracted, and in 1842 Pilch moved to the Beverley club at Canterbury.[18][41]

                    The first county clubs: 1842–1870

                    Poster for 1842 England XI game immediately before the foundation of the Kent County Club

                    The Beverley Cricket Club was formed in 1835 at the Canterbury estate of brothers John and William Baker,[41] initially playing in the St Stephen’s district of the city before moving to the Beverley Ground in 1839 when they organised the first annual Cricket Week.[44][45][46][47] After the failure of the Town Malling club, the Bakers stepped in to organise Kent teams, the newest patrons of cricket in the county, Pilch moving to Canterbury to be the groundsman.[41]

                    The Beverley club became the Kent Cricket Club on 6 August 1842, when it reconstituted itself during the annual cricket festival. The club was the first formal incarnation of Kent County Cricket Club and the 1842 cricket festival is seen by Kent as being the first Canterbury Cricket Week.[9][18][47][48]

                    The new Kent club played its initial first-class cricket match against All-England at White Hart Field in Bromley on 25–27 August 1842.[3] Initially the success of the club continued, with Kent being declared champion county again in 1843, 1847 and 1849[39] and in 1847 the club began using the St Lawrence Ground on the other side of Canterbury, Pilch once again moving to be the groundsman.[41] This was later established as the county’s formal headquarters, although Kent continued to play matches on a variety of grounds around the county until well into the 20th century, rarely using the St Lawrence Ground for more than two or three matches a year.[49][50]

                    As the team built around Pilch retired from cricket the fortunes of the club declined, the county sometimes forced to field teams of up to 16 or to combine with other clubs in order to compete.[51] Financial difficulties followed and on 1 March 1859 a second county club was formed in Maidstone to support the Canterbury-based club.[9][18][52] The two clubs, the Canterbury club known as East Kent, the Maidstone club as West Kent, co-operated to an extent, although the relationship was later described as “anything but satisfactory”.[53] The standard of cricket played by the county side, generally organised by the West Kent club,[53] remained poor and the county found it difficult to attract either the best amateur players or professionals to appear,[52][54] many amateurs only willing to appear during Canterbury Cricket Week.[55][56] Financial difficulties also caused problems producing competitive sides.[53][51] An 1870 meeting chaired by the 3rd Lord Harris at the Bull Inn at Rochester saw the two clubs merge to form the present day Kent County Cricket Club.[3][9][53][57]

                    A single county club: 1870–1914

                    The Kent side of 1888

                    Initially the amalgamation of the clubs failed to improve performances on the pitch. The best amateurs still rarely appeared and Kent lacked a core of talented professionals to provide the team with a solid foundation. The 4th Lord Harris was elected to the General Committee in 1870 and became captain and secretary in 1875. He set about reforming the club with an “energetic administration”,[53] although performances improved only slowly at first and when the County Championship was formerly established in 1890 Kent were initially able to finish only in mid table.[53][58]

                    Kent vs Lancashire at Canterbury by Albert Chevallier Tayler, which was commissioned by Kent to celebrate their 1906 County Championship victory.

                    The establishment of the Tonbridge Nursery in 1897 as a player development centre for young professionals was one of the key developments that lay the foundations for the successes of the pre-war period. The Nursery, which was run by Captain William McCanlis and set up and overseen by Tom Pawley, who became the club’s General Manager in 1898, identifying and provided organised coaching and match practise for young professionals for the first time. Players flourished and became the basis of the Kent team, gradually taking the place of the amateurs who had dominated the Kent teams of the 1870s and 80s.[9][53][59][60] By 1906 around 60% of all appearances were by professionals, with bowlers such as Colin Blythe and Arthur Fielder forming the core of the Kent attack.[61] Professional batsmen such as Punter Humphreys and James Seymour and all-rounders such as Frank Woolley became an increasing part of Kent’s success, coming together with a group of “gifted”[62] amateurs to produce strong batting lineups.

                    This Kent side was the first since the 1840s to enjoy a period of real success, winning the County Championship four times in the years between 1906 and 1914. The first title, in 1906, came under the captaincy of Cloudesley Marsham and was won on the last day of the season. Sides captained by Ted Dillon won three further Championships in 1909, 1910 and 1913 and the Kent XI was strong throughout the pre-war period.[63][64] Blythe was the team’s leading bowler throughout the period, taking over 100 wickets a season between 1902 and 1914, including 17 in one day against Northants in 1907.[63][65][66]

                    Consistency but no Championships: 1919–1939

                    Blythe died at Paschendaele in 1917, although it is unlikely he would have played county cricket once the war was over. The Kent side, once the makeshift 1919 season had been played, continued to be consistently strong throughout the inter-war period, finishing in the top five of the County Championship table in all but one season between 1919 and 1934.[67][68] Players such as Woolley, Wally Hardinge and Les Ames all played at the peak of their career whilst Blythe’s bowling was replaced by Tich Freeman’s. Freeman took 102 wickets for Kent in 1920 and then took at least 100 each season until 1936, taking 262 in 1933. He leads all Kent bowlers in wickets taken.[66]

                    Kent scored 803 for 4 declared against Essex at Brentwood in 1934, with Bill Ashdown scoring 332, Ames 202 not out and Woolley 172. The total took just seven hours, with 623 runs scored on the first day alone and remains, as of April 2018, Kent’s highest score in first-class cricket, Ashdown’s 332 runs remaining the highest individual score made for Kent.[69][70]Arthur Fagg scored a unique two double centuries in the same match for Kent against Essex at Colchester in 1938,[71] while Woolley scored over 1,000 runs for Kent in each season between 1920 and his retirement in 1938. In 1928 he made 2,894 runs for the county at a batting average of 59.06. He retired in 1938 after making 764 appearances for the county side, with 47,868 runs, 122 centuries and 773 catches for Kent – all county records.[72][73]

                    Statistical research has revealed that between the years 1895 and 1950 Kent were the fastest-scoring team in the County Championship, making their runs at an average of 313 runs per 100 overs. In those 46 seasons Kent were the fastest-scoring team 16 times.[74]

                    Post war rebuilding and the Second Golden Age: 1946–1978

                    Gerry Chalk had captained the side in 1939 when they had, once again, finished in the top five of the Championship, but he was killed during World War II and the post-war period saw Kent struggle to compete consistently. After two promising seasons under Bryan Valentine in 1946 and 1947, the county only finished in the top nine teams twice between 1948 and 1963.[67]

                    The rebuilding of the side continued under David Clark’s captaincy – Clark would later become chairman the club. Colin Cowdrey, the first man to play 100 Test matches made his Kent debut in 1950 and was appointed captain in 1957, following Doug Wright who was the first professional to captain Kent.[67] Wright took over 2,000 wickets with his brisk leg breaks and googlies between 1932 and 1957 and became the only player to take seven hat-tricks – six of them taken for Kent.[75]

                    An improvement in performances began in the mid 1960s under the captaincy of Cowdrey and the management of former wicket-keeper Les Ames. A seventh placed finish in 1964 was followed by fifth-place in 1965 and fourth-place in 1966 before the county finished as runners-up in 1967, winning the Gillette Cup in the same season. Another second-place finish in 1968 followed before the county won their first Championship since 1913 in 1970.[67] Ten trophies were won during the 1970s, including a second Championship title 1978 and a shared title in 1977. The Sunday League was won in 1972, 1973 and 1976, the Benson & Hedges Cup in 1973, 1976 and 1978 and the Gillette Cup again in 1974 – six of the trophies between 1972 and 1976 under the captaincy of Mike Denness who had succeeded Cowdrey in 1972.[76]

                    Recent history

                    In the 2006 season, Kent finished fifth in Division One of the County Championship and fifth in the NatWest Pro40 League Division Two. On 4 August 2007, Kent won the Twenty20 Cup for the first time, defeating Sussex in the semi-finals, with captain Rob Key scoring 68 not out.[77][78] In the final they defeated Gloucestershire in a see-saw game where in the final over, chasing 148, they required 13 runs, winning with three balls to spare. Matthew Walker top scored for Kent in the final with 45 runs while Darren Stevens scored 30 not out from 21 balls, including hitting the winning runs. Earlier in the final, Ryan McLaren took a hat-trick.[77][79]

                    In September 2008, Kent were relegated from the First to the Second Division of the County Championship for the first time. They won the Second Division in the 2009 season to be promoted before being relegated again at the end of the 2010 season. They have played in the Second Division since 2010, with a best finish of second in 2016, failing to be promoted only due to a restructuring of the divisional system meaning that only the Division Two champions, Essex, were promoted during that season.

                    In November 2016, Kent accepted an invitation from the West Indies Cricket Board to compete in the 2016–17 Regional Super50 domestic List A tournament in January and February 2017.[80][81][82] This was the first time that any English county side had competed in an overseas domestic competition.[83] The invitation was partly due to the influence of former West Indian captain Jimmy Adams who had, until September 2016, been Kent’s Head Coach[83] and was followed by an invitation to take part in the competition again in 2018.[84]

                    Grounds

                    Kent v South Africans in 2003, showing the old lime tree

                    Kent’s main ground is the St Lawrence Ground in Canterbury. This ground has been used by the club since 1847 and Kent have played over 500 first-class matches at the ground. It is famous for having a tree, the St Lawrence Lime, on the playing field. The original tree, around which the ground was built, was broken in two by high winds in January 2005 and replaced by a smaller replacement lime tree later in the same year.[85][86][87] The ground hosts the annual Canterbury Cricket Week, the oldest cricket festival in the world.[88][89] This dates from 1842 and has been held at the ground since the club moved there.[90][91]

                    Kent played their first official match at White Hart Field in Bromley in August 1842 and since then have used 29 different grounds within the historic county. Some of these grounds, although still in the historic county of Kent are now also within the Greater London area. Two outgrounds remain in regular use, the redeveloped County Cricket Ground, Beckenham and the Nevill Ground in Royal Tunbridge Wells. The latter ground hosts the Tunbridge Wells Cricket Week and has seen over 200 Kent home matches played on it.[92][93] Former venues include Mote Park in Maidstone, which was used until 2005 and has been the venue for over 200 Kent first-class matches,[94] as well as grounds in Gravesend, Tonbridge, Dover and Folkestone, all of which have had more than 100 home matches played on them.

                    The county’s main offices are based at the St Lawrence Ground. Indoor cricket schools are in place at both this ground and at Beckenham which acts as a centre of excellence for player development in the west of the county.[95]

                    Players

                    Frank Woolley who made his Kent debut in 1906 and holds the record for the number of runs scored and appearances made for the county.

                    Kent’s most notable former players include Colin Cowdrey, the first man to play 100 Test matches, Frank Woolley, Derek Underwood and wicket-keepers Les Ames and Alan Knott. All five men played Test cricket for England, making at least 40 Test match appearances. They are the only players to have stands named after them at the St Lawrence Ground, Kent’s home ground in Canterbury.[96] A total of 26 Kent players have been named as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year, most recently Rob Key in 2005.[97]

                    Other particularly notable former players include spin bowlers Colin Blythe and Tich Freeman. Blythe was a major force in the four County Championship wins in the years leading up to World War I and took 100 wickets in every season from 1902 to 1914.[98] He played 17 Tests for England but was killed in action during World War I. A memorial at the St Lawrence Ground is dedicated to him. Freeman played during the period after World War I and took over 150 wickets in a season for Kent 14 times. He is the only bowler to take more than 300 wickets in an English season, a feat he achieved in 1928, and the only man to have taken all ten wickets in an innings three times.[99] Fast bowler Graham Dilley represented England in 41 Test matches in the 1980s, whilst all-rounder Mark Ealham played in 64 one-day internationals in the 1990s and early 2000s.

                    Other than Ames and Knott, Kent has produced a number of other top class wicket-keepers.[100]Fred Huish, who never played for England, is considered as the “first of a line of exceptional Kent wicket-keepers”[101] which have included Godfrey Evans, who played 91 Tests for England,[102]Geraint Jones, with 34 Test and 49 ODI appearances, as well as Edward Tylecote, George Wood and Hopper Levett all of whom were capped by the country.[103]Paul Downton started his career at Kent as part of this line of players and the teams’ current wicket-keeper, Sam Billings, has made one-day appearances for England.

                    Overseas players who have made a significant contribution to Kent cricket include West Indians John Shepherd, Eldine Baptiste, Bernard Julien and Carl Hooper and Pakistan captain Asif Iqbal all of whom played multiple seasons for the county. South Africans Martin van Jaarsveld, Justin Kemp and Andrew Hall have done the same,[104] as has Australian Andrew Symonds. Other great world cricketers to have played for the county for single seasons include Sri Lankans Aravinda de Silva and Muttiah Muralitharan, India’s Rahul Dravid and Australia’s former Test captain Steve Waugh.[105]

                    Kent cricket legends’ walkway

                    As part of the redevelopment of Kent’s home ground, the St Lawrence Ground in Canterbury, the county planned to develop a “legends walkway” at the entrance to the ground.[106] A public vote was held to select 12 former players of the club to honour in the walkway. The 12 players were named in June 2011. They included Alfred Mynn, who played for the county in the 19th century, Les Ames, Colin Blythe, Tich Freeman and Frank Woolley from the first half of the 20th century, Godfrey Evans and Doug Wright from the 1930s–50s era, and Colin Cowdrey, Alan Knott, Brian Luckhurst, John Shepherd and Derek Underwood from the teams of the 1960s and 70s.[107][108] The first bricks were produced for the walkway in April 2012[109] although they were removed during development of the ground in 2017–18.

                    Captains

                    Sam Billings is the current club captain.

                    As of 2018 the current club captain of Kent is Sam Billings, who was appointed in January 2018, replacing Sam Northeast.[110] In total 33 men have been appointed as club captain, beginning with Lord Harris in 1875.[9]Colin Cowdrey captained the side for the longest span in the County Championship era, serving between 1957 and 1971. Ted Dillon led the county to the County Championship title three times, the only man to captain Kent to more than one championship title. Mike Denness’ side of the early 1970s won six one-day titles in his five years as captain.

                    Current squad

                    As of 27 October 2018

                    Of the players in the current squad Joe Denly and Sam Billings have appeared in One Day Internationals (ODIs) and T20 internationals for the England cricket team. Heino Kuhn, who signed a Kolpak contract in March 2018, has played Test and T20 cricket for South Africa and Fred Klaassen, who was signed on 1 October 2018, has played ODI and T20 cricket for the Netherlands.

                    • No. denotes the player’s squad number, as worn on the back of their shirt.
                    • double-dagger denotes players with international caps.
                    •  *  denotes a player who has been awarded a county cap.
                    No. Name Nationality Birth date Batting Style Bowling Style Notes
                    Batsmen
                    4 Heino Kuhn* double-dagger  South Africa (1984-04-01) 1 April 1984 (age 34) Right-handed Kolpak registration
                    Four Test and seven T20I appearances for South Africa.[111]
                    6 Joe Denly* double-dagger  England (1986-03-16) 16 March 1986 (age 32) Right-handed Right-arm leg break Nine ODI and six T20I appearances for England.[112]
                    10 Alex Blake*  England (1989-01-25) 25 January 1989 (age 29) Left-handed Right-arm medium
                    16 Zak Crawley  England (1998-02-03) 3 February 1998 (age 20) Right-handed Right-arm medium
                    23 Daniel Bell-Drummond*  England (1993-08-03) 3 August 1993 (age 25) Right-handed Right-arm medium
                    58 Sean Dickson  South Africa (1991-09-02) 2 September 1991 (age 27) Right-handed Right-arm medium UK passport holder
                    All-rounders
                    3 Darren Stevens*  England (1976-04-30) 30 April 1976 (age 42) Right-handed Right-arm medium
                    9 Grant Stewart  Australia (1994-02-19) 19 February 1994 (age 24) Right-handed Right-arm fast-medium EU passport holder
                    25 Calum Haggett  England (1990-10-30) 30 October 1990 (age 28) Left-handed Right-arm fast-medium
                    Wicket-keepers
                    7 Sam Billings* double-dagger  England (1991-06-15) 15 June 1991 (age 27) Right-handed Club captain;
                    15 ODI, 17 T20I appearances for England and one T20I appearance for an ICC World XI.[113]
                    12 Adam Rouse  England (1992-06-30) 30 June 1992 (age 26) Right-handed
                    21 Ollie Robinson  England (1998-12-01) 1 December 1998 (age 20) Right-handed
                    Jordan Cox[114]  England (2000-10-21) 21 October 2000 (age 18) Right-handed
                    Bowlers
                    1 Harry Podmore  England (1994-07-23) 23 July 1994 (age 24) Right-handed Right-arm fast-medium
                    5 Ivan Thomas  England (1991-09-25) 25 September 1991 (age 27) Right-handed Right-arm fast-medium
                    8 Mitchell Claydon*  England (1982-11-25) 25 November 1982 (age 36) Left-handed Right-arm fast-medium
                    11 Imran Qayyum  England (1993-05-23) 23 May 1993 (age 25) Right-handed Slow left-arm orthodox
                    33 Adam Riley  England (1992-03-23) 23 March 1992 (age 26) Right-handed Right-arm off break
                    Fred Klaassen double-dagger  Netherlands (1992-11-13) 13 November 1992 (age 26) Right-handed Left-arm medium-fast EU passport holder
                    Two ODI and five T20I appearances for Netherlands.[115]
                    Matt Milnes  England (1994-07-29) 29 July 1994 (age 24) Right-handed Right-arm fast-medium

                    Coaching staff

                    Matt Walker is head coach of the side, having been appointed in January 2017 following former coach Jimmy Adams’ decision to return to the Caribbean. Walker played for Kent for 16 seasons and was previously batting coach at Essex.[116] Walker’s assistant coach is former South African international Allan Donald. Donald was initially appointed alongside Walker in 2017 but was unable to take up his role until the start of the 2018 season as he did not have a suitable level 3 coaching qualification to qualify for a work permit.[117][118][119]

                    The Second XI coach at the club is former player Min Patel whilst Jason Weaver is the high performance director in charge of the club’s academy.[120] Former player Mark Ealham is a part-time coach with the club, also spending time coaching at The King’s School, Canterbury.[121]

                    Records

                    Frank Woolley, who played for Kent between 1906 and 1938, holds the record for the most appearances, most career runs and most runs in a season for the county. He is the only man to score more than 100 centuries for Kent with 122 and is the county’s fifth leading wicket taker. Bill Ashdown holds the record for the highest score for the county with 332 runs against Essex in 1934. He is one of only two men to have scored a triple-century for Kent, with two to his name, the other being Sean Dickson who scored 318 against Northants in 2017.[122][123]

                    Tich Freeman is the county’s leading wicket taker with 3,340 wickets. Freeman took more than 150 wickets for the county 14 times and holds the record for the most wickets in a season. Fellow spin bowler Colin Blythe has the best bowling figures in Kent’s history taking 10/30 against Northamptonshire in 1907, with 17/48 in the match. Freeman took ten wickets in a match 128 times with Blythe achieving the same feat 64 times.[122]

                    Along with Woolley and Freeman, Wally Hardinge, James Seymour and Derek Underwood are the only men with more than 500 first-class appearances for Kent.[122]

                    Kent Women

                    The Kent Women’s cricket team represents the county in the Women’s County Championship and Women’s Twenty20 Cup. The first recorded match by a Kent Women’s team was in May 1935,[124] with the team first appearing in the Women’s Area Championship in 1980.[125]

                    The side features a number of international players and is captained by England international Tammy Beaumont. They have won the County Championship a record seven times since it was established in 1997, most recently in 2016, and the Women’s Twenty20 Cup three times, most recently in 2016. The team play the majority of their home matches at the County Cricket Ground, Beckenham. The Women’s team is sponsored by Canterbury Christ Church University.

                    Kent Cricket Academy

                    Joe Denly, seen playing for Kent in 2016, is a graduate of the Kent Cricket Academy

                    Kent established an academy in 2003 with the aim of developing future first-class cricketers. The academy is based at the St Lawrence Ground in Canterbury and makes use of the Ames-Levett Sports Centre at the ground.[126] It has produced over 25 first-term players for the county, including current club captain Sam Northeast and senior England internationals Tammy Beaumont, Sam Billings, Joe Denly, Natasha Farrant, Lydia Greenway and Jo Watts.[127] The leading academy scholar is awarded the John Aitken Gray trophy each year. Past winners have included county First XI players Daniel Bell-Drummond, Alex Blake[128] and Ollie Robinson.[129]

                    The academy was established by former wicket-keeper Simon Willis.[130]Paul Farbrace and Philip Relf held lead coaching roles within the scheme until Willis was appointed as high performance director in 2011, serving in the role until May 2016 when he was appointed the high performance manager of Sri Lanka Cricket.[131][132][133][134] Former Kent and England spin bowler Min Patel took over the running of the academy on an interim basis following Willis’ departure[127] before becoming Second XI coach in January 2017, with former Shropshire wicket-keeper Jason Weaver taking over the role as high performance director, the two jobs replacing Willis’ former role.[120]

                    Honours

                    Kent have won the County Championship seven times, including one shared title. Four of their wins came in the years before World War I between 1906 and 1913, Ted Dillon captaining the side to three of their titles. The county had to wait until the 1970s to win their other Championship titles, winning outright in 1970 and 1978 and sharing the title with Middlesex in 1977. Kent have finished as runner-up in the Championship on 12 occasions, most recently in 2004. The County Championship Second Division title was won by the county in 2009.[135]

                    The county First XI has also won a number of limited overs competition trophies. Eight trophies were won between 1967 and 1978, six times by teams led by Mike Denness. Three more trophies have followed in 1995, 2001 and, most recently, the 2007 Twenty20 Cup. Kent finished runners-up in the 2008 T20 competition, the 2008 Friends Provident Trophy[135] and the 2018 Royal London One-Day Cup.

                    The Second XI Championship title has been won nine times by the county, including one shared win in 1987. As of 2017 this represents a record number of victories in the competition. Four of the victories have occurred in the 21st century, with the most recent in 2012. The Second XI Trophy one-day competition was won in 2002 and the county won the Minor Counties Championship twice in the 1950s when first-class Second XI’s entered the competition.[135]

                    Kent’s women have won the Women’s County Championship a record seven times, most recently in 2016, and have been runners-up five times since the competition was established in 1997. The women’s side has also won the Twenty20 Championship three times, in 2011, 2013 and 2016.

                    First XI honours

                    • County Championship (6) – 1906, 1909, 1910, 1913, 1970, 1978; shared (1) – 1977
                      Runners-up (12): 1988, 1908, 1911, 1919, 1928, 1967, 1968, 1972, 1988, 1992, 1997, 2004
                      County Championship Division Two (1) – 2009
                      Runners-up (2): 2016, 2018
                    • One Day Cup[C] (2) – 1967, 1974
                      Runners-up (5): 1971, 1983, 1984, 2008, 2018
                    • National League [D] (5) – 1972, 1973, 1976, 1995, 2001
                      Runners-up (4): 1970, 1979, 1993, 1997
                    • Benson & Hedges Cup [E](3) – 1973, 1976, 1978
                      Runners-up (5): 1977, 1986, 1992, 1995, 1997
                    • Twenty20 Cup [F](1) – 2007
                      Runners-up (1): 2008

                    Second XI honours

                    • Minor Counties Championship (2) – 1951, 1956
                    • Second XI Championship (8) – 1961, 1969, 1970, 1976, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2012; shared (1) – 1987
                    • Second XI Trophy (1) – 2002

                    Women’s honours

                    • Women’s County Championship winners (7) – 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2016
                      Runners-up (5) – 2004, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2015
                    • Women’s County Twenty20 Championship winners (3) – 2011, 2013, 2016

                    Notes

                    1. ^ How representative of the county Kent teams were until 1870, and certainly until 1806, is open to doubt. Even the names of teams involved in matches is disputed in some cases. Some matches given first-class cricket status by some authorities are not considered first-class by the club itself, including 14 matches played by Kent teams with 13 or more players between 1854 and 1881.[15][16][17]
                    2. ^ For example, Kent teams played four times against an England side in 1800 and a number of times in the early 19th century against club sides, England and MCC.[33][34][35]
                    3. ^ Known as the Gillette Cup (1963–1980), NatWest Trophy (1981–2000) and C&G Trophy (2001–2006), Friends Provident Trophy (2007–2009), ECB 40 (2010–2013) and Royal London One-Day Cup (2014 onwards)
                    4. ^ Formerly known as the Sunday League (1969–1998). Ran until the end of the 2009 season.
                    5. ^ Ran between 1972 and 2002.
                    6. ^ Names have included the Twenty20 Cup (2003-2009), Friends Life t20 (2010-2013) and T20 Blast (2014 onwards).

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                    15. ^ ab First Class Records, Kent County Cricket Club Annual 2017, p.170. Canterbury: Kent County Cricket Club.
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                      ISBN 1-85410-710-0
                    24. ^ Waghorn HT (1899) Cricket Scores, Notes, etc. (1730–1773), pp.22–23. Blackwood
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                    29. ^ ACS, op. cit., p. 23.
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                    31. ^ Main, op. cit., p.188.
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                    39. ^ ab Ellis C, Pennell M (2010) Trophies and Tribulations, p. 7. London: Greenwich Publishing.
                      ISBN 978-0-9564081-0-5.
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                      ISBN 0-7146-5173-7.
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                    55. ^ Death Of Mr. G. M. Kelson, The Times, 1920-04-03, p. 5.
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                    59. ^ Moseling & Quarrington op. cit., pp.2–3.
                    60. ^ Lewis P (2013) For Kent and Country, p.33. Brighton: Reveille Press.
                      ISBN 978-1-908336-63-7.
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                    62. ^ Moseling & Quarrington op. cit. p.3.
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                    71. ^ A brief history of Castle Park, CricInfo. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
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                    82. ^ Wilson A (2016) One-Day Cup takes centre stage, England and Wales Cricket Board, 2016-11-24. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
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                    Further reading

                    • Harris & Ashley-Cooper FS (1929) Kent Cricket Matches 1719–1880. Canterbury: Gibbs & Sons.
                    • Moore D (1988) The History of Kent County Cricket Club. London: Christopher Helm.
                      ISBN 0-7470-2209-7

                    External links

                    • Official Kent County Cricket Club Website
                    • Official Website of Kent Cricket Community Team


                    The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

                    Should I throw exceptions in an if-else block?

                    15

                    Here is the code:

                    public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                        Response res = new Response();
                        try {
                            if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                // business logic
                            } else {
                               throw new Exception("xxxx");
                            }
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                            res.setMessage(e.getMessage); // I think this is weird
                        }
                        return res;
                    }
                    

                    This program is working fine.
                    I think it should be redesigned, but how?

                    share|improve this question

                    • 5

                      Using exceptions for flow control is generally accepted as an anti pattern. Interestingly, the throws Excetpion (sic) declaration isn’t needed.
                      – StuartLC
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      I personally dislike using Exceptions for business flow.
                      – Sid
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      What happens in //business logic? Can that code throw an exception that you need to catch inside this method?
                      – Mick Mnemonic
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      @Amadan python is almost unique in that respect though. It’s not just Java and C++.
                      – Jared Smith
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      @Amadan 1. please stop creating a secondary discussion in comments; as a seasoned user, you should know that is against the rules on SO. 2. the problem you raised has been discussed ad nauseam already, both in e.g. SE link provided by StuartLC, in Josh Bloch’s EJ 2nd, and in many other SE-related books on software patterns, anti-patterns, and general design architecture. 3. when a big chunk of the population flat out disagrees … well, big chunk of population considers global warming a hoax or a fraud, think Europe is a country, and also call ’round Earth’ a conspiracy – ad populum etc.
                      – vaxquis
                      yesterday

                    15

                    Here is the code:

                    public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                        Response res = new Response();
                        try {
                            if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                // business logic
                            } else {
                               throw new Exception("xxxx");
                            }
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                            res.setMessage(e.getMessage); // I think this is weird
                        }
                        return res;
                    }
                    

                    This program is working fine.
                    I think it should be redesigned, but how?

                    share|improve this question

                    • 5

                      Using exceptions for flow control is generally accepted as an anti pattern. Interestingly, the throws Excetpion (sic) declaration isn’t needed.
                      – StuartLC
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      I personally dislike using Exceptions for business flow.
                      – Sid
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      What happens in //business logic? Can that code throw an exception that you need to catch inside this method?
                      – Mick Mnemonic
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      @Amadan python is almost unique in that respect though. It’s not just Java and C++.
                      – Jared Smith
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      @Amadan 1. please stop creating a secondary discussion in comments; as a seasoned user, you should know that is against the rules on SO. 2. the problem you raised has been discussed ad nauseam already, both in e.g. SE link provided by StuartLC, in Josh Bloch’s EJ 2nd, and in many other SE-related books on software patterns, anti-patterns, and general design architecture. 3. when a big chunk of the population flat out disagrees … well, big chunk of population considers global warming a hoax or a fraud, think Europe is a country, and also call ’round Earth’ a conspiracy – ad populum etc.
                      – vaxquis
                      yesterday

                    15

                    15

                    15

                    Here is the code:

                    public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                        Response res = new Response();
                        try {
                            if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                // business logic
                            } else {
                               throw new Exception("xxxx");
                            }
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                            res.setMessage(e.getMessage); // I think this is weird
                        }
                        return res;
                    }
                    

                    This program is working fine.
                    I think it should be redesigned, but how?

                    share|improve this question

                    Here is the code:

                    public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                        Response res = new Response();
                        try {
                            if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                // business logic
                            } else {
                               throw new Exception("xxxx");
                            }
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                            res.setMessage(e.getMessage); // I think this is weird
                        }
                        return res;
                    }
                    

                    This program is working fine.
                    I think it should be redesigned, but how?

                    java

                    share|improve this question

                    share|improve this question

                    share|improve this question

                    share|improve this question

                    edited yesterday

                    Pedro A

                    1,084925

                    1,084925

                    asked yesterday

                    Vida Wang

                    1299

                    1299

                    • 5

                      Using exceptions for flow control is generally accepted as an anti pattern. Interestingly, the throws Excetpion (sic) declaration isn’t needed.
                      – StuartLC
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      I personally dislike using Exceptions for business flow.
                      – Sid
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      What happens in //business logic? Can that code throw an exception that you need to catch inside this method?
                      – Mick Mnemonic
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      @Amadan python is almost unique in that respect though. It’s not just Java and C++.
                      – Jared Smith
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      @Amadan 1. please stop creating a secondary discussion in comments; as a seasoned user, you should know that is against the rules on SO. 2. the problem you raised has been discussed ad nauseam already, both in e.g. SE link provided by StuartLC, in Josh Bloch’s EJ 2nd, and in many other SE-related books on software patterns, anti-patterns, and general design architecture. 3. when a big chunk of the population flat out disagrees … well, big chunk of population considers global warming a hoax or a fraud, think Europe is a country, and also call ’round Earth’ a conspiracy – ad populum etc.
                      – vaxquis
                      yesterday

                    • 5

                      Using exceptions for flow control is generally accepted as an anti pattern. Interestingly, the throws Excetpion (sic) declaration isn’t needed.
                      – StuartLC
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      I personally dislike using Exceptions for business flow.
                      – Sid
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      What happens in //business logic? Can that code throw an exception that you need to catch inside this method?
                      – Mick Mnemonic
                      yesterday

                    • 4

                      @Amadan python is almost unique in that respect though. It’s not just Java and C++.
                      – Jared Smith
                      yesterday

                    • 2

                      @Amadan 1. please stop creating a secondary discussion in comments; as a seasoned user, you should know that is against the rules on SO. 2. the problem you raised has been discussed ad nauseam already, both in e.g. SE link provided by StuartLC, in Josh Bloch’s EJ 2nd, and in many other SE-related books on software patterns, anti-patterns, and general design architecture. 3. when a big chunk of the population flat out disagrees … well, big chunk of population considers global warming a hoax or a fraud, think Europe is a country, and also call ’round Earth’ a conspiracy – ad populum etc.
                      – vaxquis
                      yesterday

                    5

                    5

                    Using exceptions for flow control is generally accepted as an anti pattern. Interestingly, the throws Excetpion (sic) declaration isn’t needed.
                    – StuartLC
                    yesterday

                    Using exceptions for flow control is generally accepted as an anti pattern. Interestingly, the throws Excetpion (sic) declaration isn’t needed.
                    – StuartLC
                    yesterday

                    2

                    2

                    I personally dislike using Exceptions for business flow.
                    – Sid
                    yesterday

                    I personally dislike using Exceptions for business flow.
                    – Sid
                    yesterday

                    4

                    4

                    What happens in //business logic? Can that code throw an exception that you need to catch inside this method?
                    – Mick Mnemonic
                    yesterday

                    What happens in //business logic? Can that code throw an exception that you need to catch inside this method?
                    – Mick Mnemonic
                    yesterday

                    4

                    4

                    @Amadan python is almost unique in that respect though. It’s not just Java and C++.
                    – Jared Smith
                    yesterday

                    @Amadan python is almost unique in that respect though. It’s not just Java and C++.
                    – Jared Smith
                    yesterday

                    2

                    2

                    @Amadan 1. please stop creating a secondary discussion in comments; as a seasoned user, you should know that is against the rules on SO. 2. the problem you raised has been discussed ad nauseam already, both in e.g. SE link provided by StuartLC, in Josh Bloch’s EJ 2nd, and in many other SE-related books on software patterns, anti-patterns, and general design architecture. 3. when a big chunk of the population flat out disagrees … well, big chunk of population considers global warming a hoax or a fraud, think Europe is a country, and also call ’round Earth’ a conspiracy – ad populum etc.
                    – vaxquis
                    yesterday

                    @Amadan 1. please stop creating a secondary discussion in comments; as a seasoned user, you should know that is against the rules on SO. 2. the problem you raised has been discussed ad nauseam already, both in e.g. SE link provided by StuartLC, in Josh Bloch’s EJ 2nd, and in many other SE-related books on software patterns, anti-patterns, and general design architecture. 3. when a big chunk of the population flat out disagrees … well, big chunk of population considers global warming a hoax or a fraud, think Europe is a country, and also call ’round Earth’ a conspiracy – ad populum etc.
                    – vaxquis
                    yesterday

                    7 Answers
                    7

                    active

                    oldest

                    votes

                    29

                    It makes no sense to throw an exception in a try block and immediately catch it, unless the catch block throws a different exception.

                    Your code would make more sense this way:

                    public Response getABC(Request request) {
                        Response res = new Response();
                        if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                            // business logic
                        } else {
                            res.setMessage("xxxx");
                        }
                        return res;
                    }
                    

                    You only need the try-catch block if your business logic (executed when the condition is true) may throw exceptions.

                    If you don’t catch the exception (which means the caller will have to handle it), you can do without the else clause:

                    public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                        if (request.someProperty != 1) {
                            throw new Exception("xxxx");
                        }
                    
                        Response res = new Response();
                        // business logic
                        return res;
                    }
                    

                    share|improve this answer

                      9

                      if you are throwing the exception from the method then why bother catching it ? it’s either you return a response with “xxxx” message or throw an exception for the caller of this method to handle it.

                      public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                          Response res = new Response();
                              if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                  //business logic
                              else{
                                 res.setMessage("xxxx");
                              }
                          }
                          return res;
                      }
                      

                      OR

                      public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                          Response res = new Response();
                              if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                  //business logic
                              else{
                                 throw new Exception("xxxx");
                              }
                          return res;
                      }
                      
                      
                      public void someMethod(Request request) {
                          try {
                              Response r = getABC(request);
                          } catch (Exception e) {
                              //LOG exception or return response with error message
                              Response response = new Response();
                              response.setMessage("xxxx");
                              retunr response;
                          }
                      
                      }
                      

                      share|improve this answer

                        3

                        First and foremost, tread more carefully when you refactor a working method – especially if you are performing a manual refactoring. That said, introducing a variable to hold message may be one way of changing the design:

                        public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                            String message = "";
                            try{
                                if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                    //business logic
                                else{
                                   message = "xxxx";
                                }
                            }catch(Exception e){
                                message = e.getMessage();
                            }
                            Response res = new Response();
                            res.setMessage(message);
                            return res;
                        }
                        

                        The assumption is that the business logic does it’s own return when it succeeds.

                        share|improve this answer

                          3

                          I think you might be missing the point of that try/catch. The code is using the exception system to bubble any exception message to the caller. This could be deep inside a nested call stack–not just the one “throws” you are looking at.

                          In other words, the “throws” declaration in your example code is taking advantage of this mechanism to deliver a message to the client, but it almost certainly isn’t the primary intended user of the try/catch. (Also it’s a sloppy, kinda cheap way to deliver this message–it can lead to confusion)

                          This return value isn’t a great idea anyway because Exceptions often don’t have messages and can be re-wrapped… it’s better than nothing though. Exception messages just aren’t the best tool for this, but handling an exception at a high level like this is still a good idea.

                          My point is, if you refactor this code be sure to look for runtime exceptions that might be thrown anywhere in your code base (at least anywhere called during message processing)–and even then you should probably keep the catch/return message as a catch-all just in case a runtime exception pops up that you didn’t expect. You don’t have to return the error “Message” as the message of your response–It could be some quippy “We couldn’t process your request at this time” instead, but be sure to dump the stack trace to a log. You are currently throwing it away.

                          share|improve this answer

                            2

                            it seems doesn’t make sense when purposely throwing exception and then directly catch it,
                            it may redesign like this,
                            may change “throw new Exception(“xxxx”);” with “res.setMessage(“xxxx”);”

                            and then may keep catching the exception part in order to catch exception that may happen inside the business logic.

                            public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                              Response res = new Response();
                              try{
                                  if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                      //business logic
                                  else{
                                     res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                  }
                              }catch(Exception e){
                                  res.setMessage(e.getMessage);
                              }
                              return res;
                            }
                            

                            share|improve this answer

                            New contributor
                            M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                            Check out our Code of Conduct.

                              2

                              Why did you use try/catch statement when you already throw Checked Exception?

                              Checked exception is usually used in some languages like C++ or Java, but not in new language like Kotlin. I personally restrict to use it.

                              For example, I have a class like this:

                              class ApiService{
                                  Response getSomething() throw Exception(); 
                              } 
                              

                              which feels clean and readable, but undermines the utility of the exception handling mechanism. Practically, getSomething() doesn’t offen throw checked exception but still need to behave as it does? This works when there is somebody upstream of ApiService who know how to deal with the unpredictable or unpreventable errors like this. And if you can really know how to deal with it, then go ahead and use something like the example below, otherwise, Unchecked Exception would be sufficient.

                              public Response getSomething(Request req) throws Exception{
                                  if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                      Response res = new Response();
                                      // logic 
                                  } else {
                                      thows Exception("Some messages go here")
                                  }
                              }
                              

                              I will encourage to do in this way:

                              public Response getSomething(Request req){
                              if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                      Response res = new Response();
                                      // logic 
                                      return res;
                                  } else {
                                      return ErrorResponse("error message"); // or throw RuntimeException here if you want to
                                  }
                              }
                              

                              For more insights, Kotlin which I mentioned before doesn’t support Checked exception because of many reasons.

                              The following is an example interface of the JDK implemented by StringBuilder class:

                              Appendable append(CharSequence csq) throws IOException;
                              

                              What does this signature say? It says that every time I append a string to something (a StringBuilder, some kind of a log, a console, etc.) I have to catch those IOExceptions. Why? Because it might be performing IO (Writer also implements Appendable)… So it results into this kind of code all over the place:

                              try {
                                  log.append(message)
                              }
                              catch (IOException e) {
                                  // Must be safe
                              }
                              

                              And this is no good, see Effective Java, 3rd Edition, Item 77: Don’t ignore exceptions.

                              Take a look at these links:

                              • Checked and unchecked exception
                              • Java’s checked exceptions were a mistake (Rod Waldhoff)
                              • The Trouble with Checked Exceptions (Anders Hejlsberg)
                              share|improve this answer

                                1

                                The exception mechanism has three purposes:

                                1. Immediately disable normal program flow and go back up the call stack until a suitable catch-block is found.
                                2. Provide context in form of the exception type, message and optionally additional fields that the catch-block code can use to determine course of action.
                                3. A stack trace for programmers to see to do forensic analysis. (This used to be very expensive to make).

                                This is a lot of functionality for a mechanism to have. In order to keep programs as simple as we can – for future maintainers – we should therefore only use this mechanism if we really have to.

                                In your example code I would expect any throw statement to be a very serious thing indicating that something is wrong and code is expected to handle this emergency somewhere. I would need to understand what went wrong and how severe it is before going on reading the rest of the program. Here it is just a fancy return of a String, and I would scratch my head and wonder “Why was this necessary?” and that extra effort could have been better spent.

                                So this code is not as good as it can be, but I would only change it if you had the time to do a full test too. Changing program flow can introduce subtle errors and you need to have the changes fresh in your mind if you need to fix anything.

                                share|improve this answer

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                                  29

                                  It makes no sense to throw an exception in a try block and immediately catch it, unless the catch block throws a different exception.

                                  Your code would make more sense this way:

                                  public Response getABC(Request request) {
                                      Response res = new Response();
                                      if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                          // business logic
                                      } else {
                                          res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                      }
                                      return res;
                                  }
                                  

                                  You only need the try-catch block if your business logic (executed when the condition is true) may throw exceptions.

                                  If you don’t catch the exception (which means the caller will have to handle it), you can do without the else clause:

                                  public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                                      if (request.someProperty != 1) {
                                          throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                      }
                                  
                                      Response res = new Response();
                                      // business logic
                                      return res;
                                  }
                                  

                                  share|improve this answer

                                    29

                                    It makes no sense to throw an exception in a try block and immediately catch it, unless the catch block throws a different exception.

                                    Your code would make more sense this way:

                                    public Response getABC(Request request) {
                                        Response res = new Response();
                                        if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                            // business logic
                                        } else {
                                            res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                        }
                                        return res;
                                    }
                                    

                                    You only need the try-catch block if your business logic (executed when the condition is true) may throw exceptions.

                                    If you don’t catch the exception (which means the caller will have to handle it), you can do without the else clause:

                                    public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                                        if (request.someProperty != 1) {
                                            throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                        }
                                    
                                        Response res = new Response();
                                        // business logic
                                        return res;
                                    }
                                    

                                    share|improve this answer

                                      29

                                      29

                                      29

                                      It makes no sense to throw an exception in a try block and immediately catch it, unless the catch block throws a different exception.

                                      Your code would make more sense this way:

                                      public Response getABC(Request request) {
                                          Response res = new Response();
                                          if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                              // business logic
                                          } else {
                                              res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                          }
                                          return res;
                                      }
                                      

                                      You only need the try-catch block if your business logic (executed when the condition is true) may throw exceptions.

                                      If you don’t catch the exception (which means the caller will have to handle it), you can do without the else clause:

                                      public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                                          if (request.someProperty != 1) {
                                              throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                          }
                                      
                                          Response res = new Response();
                                          // business logic
                                          return res;
                                      }
                                      

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      It makes no sense to throw an exception in a try block and immediately catch it, unless the catch block throws a different exception.

                                      Your code would make more sense this way:

                                      public Response getABC(Request request) {
                                          Response res = new Response();
                                          if (request.someProperty == 1) {
                                              // business logic
                                          } else {
                                              res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                          }
                                          return res;
                                      }
                                      

                                      You only need the try-catch block if your business logic (executed when the condition is true) may throw exceptions.

                                      If you don’t catch the exception (which means the caller will have to handle it), you can do without the else clause:

                                      public Response getABC(Request request) throws Exception {
                                          if (request.someProperty != 1) {
                                              throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                          }
                                      
                                          Response res = new Response();
                                          // business logic
                                          return res;
                                      }
                                      

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      edited yesterday

                                      John C

                                      2,14712136

                                      2,14712136

                                      answered yesterday

                                      Eran

                                      279k37449535

                                      279k37449535

                                          9

                                          if you are throwing the exception from the method then why bother catching it ? it’s either you return a response with “xxxx” message or throw an exception for the caller of this method to handle it.

                                          public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                              Response res = new Response();
                                                  if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                      //business logic
                                                  else{
                                                     res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                  }
                                              }
                                              return res;
                                          }
                                          

                                          OR

                                          public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                              Response res = new Response();
                                                  if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                      //business logic
                                                  else{
                                                     throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                                  }
                                              return res;
                                          }
                                          
                                          
                                          public void someMethod(Request request) {
                                              try {
                                                  Response r = getABC(request);
                                              } catch (Exception e) {
                                                  //LOG exception or return response with error message
                                                  Response response = new Response();
                                                  response.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                  retunr response;
                                              }
                                          
                                          }
                                          

                                          share|improve this answer

                                            9

                                            if you are throwing the exception from the method then why bother catching it ? it’s either you return a response with “xxxx” message or throw an exception for the caller of this method to handle it.

                                            public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                                Response res = new Response();
                                                    if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                        //business logic
                                                    else{
                                                       res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                    }
                                                }
                                                return res;
                                            }
                                            

                                            OR

                                            public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                                Response res = new Response();
                                                    if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                        //business logic
                                                    else{
                                                       throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                                    }
                                                return res;
                                            }
                                            
                                            
                                            public void someMethod(Request request) {
                                                try {
                                                    Response r = getABC(request);
                                                } catch (Exception e) {
                                                    //LOG exception or return response with error message
                                                    Response response = new Response();
                                                    response.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                    retunr response;
                                                }
                                            
                                            }
                                            

                                            share|improve this answer

                                              9

                                              9

                                              9

                                              if you are throwing the exception from the method then why bother catching it ? it’s either you return a response with “xxxx” message or throw an exception for the caller of this method to handle it.

                                              public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                                  Response res = new Response();
                                                      if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                          //business logic
                                                      else{
                                                         res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                      }
                                                  }
                                                  return res;
                                              }
                                              

                                              OR

                                              public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                                  Response res = new Response();
                                                      if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                          //business logic
                                                      else{
                                                         throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                                      }
                                                  return res;
                                              }
                                              
                                              
                                              public void someMethod(Request request) {
                                                  try {
                                                      Response r = getABC(request);
                                                  } catch (Exception e) {
                                                      //LOG exception or return response with error message
                                                      Response response = new Response();
                                                      response.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                      retunr response;
                                                  }
                                              
                                              }
                                              

                                              share|improve this answer

                                              if you are throwing the exception from the method then why bother catching it ? it’s either you return a response with “xxxx” message or throw an exception for the caller of this method to handle it.

                                              public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                                  Response res = new Response();
                                                      if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                          //business logic
                                                      else{
                                                         res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                      }
                                                  }
                                                  return res;
                                              }
                                              

                                              OR

                                              public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                                  Response res = new Response();
                                                      if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                          //business logic
                                                      else{
                                                         throw new Exception("xxxx");
                                                      }
                                                  return res;
                                              }
                                              
                                              
                                              public void someMethod(Request request) {
                                                  try {
                                                      Response r = getABC(request);
                                                  } catch (Exception e) {
                                                      //LOG exception or return response with error message
                                                      Response response = new Response();
                                                      response.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                      retunr response;
                                                  }
                                              
                                              }
                                              

                                              share|improve this answer

                                              share|improve this answer

                                              share|improve this answer

                                              answered yesterday

                                              mkjh

                                              290110

                                              290110

                                                  3

                                                  First and foremost, tread more carefully when you refactor a working method – especially if you are performing a manual refactoring. That said, introducing a variable to hold message may be one way of changing the design:

                                                  public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                                      String message = "";
                                                      try{
                                                          if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                              //business logic
                                                          else{
                                                             message = "xxxx";
                                                          }
                                                      }catch(Exception e){
                                                          message = e.getMessage();
                                                      }
                                                      Response res = new Response();
                                                      res.setMessage(message);
                                                      return res;
                                                  }
                                                  

                                                  The assumption is that the business logic does it’s own return when it succeeds.

                                                  share|improve this answer

                                                    3

                                                    First and foremost, tread more carefully when you refactor a working method – especially if you are performing a manual refactoring. That said, introducing a variable to hold message may be one way of changing the design:

                                                    public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                                        String message = "";
                                                        try{
                                                            if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                                //business logic
                                                            else{
                                                               message = "xxxx";
                                                            }
                                                        }catch(Exception e){
                                                            message = e.getMessage();
                                                        }
                                                        Response res = new Response();
                                                        res.setMessage(message);
                                                        return res;
                                                    }
                                                    

                                                    The assumption is that the business logic does it’s own return when it succeeds.

                                                    share|improve this answer

                                                      3

                                                      3

                                                      3

                                                      First and foremost, tread more carefully when you refactor a working method – especially if you are performing a manual refactoring. That said, introducing a variable to hold message may be one way of changing the design:

                                                      public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                                          String message = "";
                                                          try{
                                                              if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                                  //business logic
                                                              else{
                                                                 message = "xxxx";
                                                              }
                                                          }catch(Exception e){
                                                              message = e.getMessage();
                                                          }
                                                          Response res = new Response();
                                                          res.setMessage(message);
                                                          return res;
                                                      }
                                                      

                                                      The assumption is that the business logic does it’s own return when it succeeds.

                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                      First and foremost, tread more carefully when you refactor a working method – especially if you are performing a manual refactoring. That said, introducing a variable to hold message may be one way of changing the design:

                                                      public Response getABC(Request requst) throw Excetpions {
                                                          String message = "";
                                                          try{
                                                              if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                                  //business logic
                                                              else{
                                                                 message = "xxxx";
                                                              }
                                                          }catch(Exception e){
                                                              message = e.getMessage();
                                                          }
                                                          Response res = new Response();
                                                          res.setMessage(message);
                                                          return res;
                                                      }
                                                      

                                                      The assumption is that the business logic does it’s own return when it succeeds.

                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                      answered yesterday

                                                      Dakshinamurthy Karra

                                                      4,10111021

                                                      4,10111021

                                                          3

                                                          I think you might be missing the point of that try/catch. The code is using the exception system to bubble any exception message to the caller. This could be deep inside a nested call stack–not just the one “throws” you are looking at.

                                                          In other words, the “throws” declaration in your example code is taking advantage of this mechanism to deliver a message to the client, but it almost certainly isn’t the primary intended user of the try/catch. (Also it’s a sloppy, kinda cheap way to deliver this message–it can lead to confusion)

                                                          This return value isn’t a great idea anyway because Exceptions often don’t have messages and can be re-wrapped… it’s better than nothing though. Exception messages just aren’t the best tool for this, but handling an exception at a high level like this is still a good idea.

                                                          My point is, if you refactor this code be sure to look for runtime exceptions that might be thrown anywhere in your code base (at least anywhere called during message processing)–and even then you should probably keep the catch/return message as a catch-all just in case a runtime exception pops up that you didn’t expect. You don’t have to return the error “Message” as the message of your response–It could be some quippy “We couldn’t process your request at this time” instead, but be sure to dump the stack trace to a log. You are currently throwing it away.

                                                          share|improve this answer

                                                            3

                                                            I think you might be missing the point of that try/catch. The code is using the exception system to bubble any exception message to the caller. This could be deep inside a nested call stack–not just the one “throws” you are looking at.

                                                            In other words, the “throws” declaration in your example code is taking advantage of this mechanism to deliver a message to the client, but it almost certainly isn’t the primary intended user of the try/catch. (Also it’s a sloppy, kinda cheap way to deliver this message–it can lead to confusion)

                                                            This return value isn’t a great idea anyway because Exceptions often don’t have messages and can be re-wrapped… it’s better than nothing though. Exception messages just aren’t the best tool for this, but handling an exception at a high level like this is still a good idea.

                                                            My point is, if you refactor this code be sure to look for runtime exceptions that might be thrown anywhere in your code base (at least anywhere called during message processing)–and even then you should probably keep the catch/return message as a catch-all just in case a runtime exception pops up that you didn’t expect. You don’t have to return the error “Message” as the message of your response–It could be some quippy “We couldn’t process your request at this time” instead, but be sure to dump the stack trace to a log. You are currently throwing it away.

                                                            share|improve this answer

                                                              3

                                                              3

                                                              3

                                                              I think you might be missing the point of that try/catch. The code is using the exception system to bubble any exception message to the caller. This could be deep inside a nested call stack–not just the one “throws” you are looking at.

                                                              In other words, the “throws” declaration in your example code is taking advantage of this mechanism to deliver a message to the client, but it almost certainly isn’t the primary intended user of the try/catch. (Also it’s a sloppy, kinda cheap way to deliver this message–it can lead to confusion)

                                                              This return value isn’t a great idea anyway because Exceptions often don’t have messages and can be re-wrapped… it’s better than nothing though. Exception messages just aren’t the best tool for this, but handling an exception at a high level like this is still a good idea.

                                                              My point is, if you refactor this code be sure to look for runtime exceptions that might be thrown anywhere in your code base (at least anywhere called during message processing)–and even then you should probably keep the catch/return message as a catch-all just in case a runtime exception pops up that you didn’t expect. You don’t have to return the error “Message” as the message of your response–It could be some quippy “We couldn’t process your request at this time” instead, but be sure to dump the stack trace to a log. You are currently throwing it away.

                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                              I think you might be missing the point of that try/catch. The code is using the exception system to bubble any exception message to the caller. This could be deep inside a nested call stack–not just the one “throws” you are looking at.

                                                              In other words, the “throws” declaration in your example code is taking advantage of this mechanism to deliver a message to the client, but it almost certainly isn’t the primary intended user of the try/catch. (Also it’s a sloppy, kinda cheap way to deliver this message–it can lead to confusion)

                                                              This return value isn’t a great idea anyway because Exceptions often don’t have messages and can be re-wrapped… it’s better than nothing though. Exception messages just aren’t the best tool for this, but handling an exception at a high level like this is still a good idea.

                                                              My point is, if you refactor this code be sure to look for runtime exceptions that might be thrown anywhere in your code base (at least anywhere called during message processing)–and even then you should probably keep the catch/return message as a catch-all just in case a runtime exception pops up that you didn’t expect. You don’t have to return the error “Message” as the message of your response–It could be some quippy “We couldn’t process your request at this time” instead, but be sure to dump the stack trace to a log. You are currently throwing it away.

                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                              edited yesterday

                                                              answered yesterday

                                                              Bill K

                                                              53k1385137

                                                              53k1385137

                                                                  2

                                                                  it seems doesn’t make sense when purposely throwing exception and then directly catch it,
                                                                  it may redesign like this,
                                                                  may change “throw new Exception(“xxxx”);” with “res.setMessage(“xxxx”);”

                                                                  and then may keep catching the exception part in order to catch exception that may happen inside the business logic.

                                                                  public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                                                    Response res = new Response();
                                                                    try{
                                                                        if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                                            //business logic
                                                                        else{
                                                                           res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                                        }
                                                                    }catch(Exception e){
                                                                        res.setMessage(e.getMessage);
                                                                    }
                                                                    return res;
                                                                  }
                                                                  

                                                                  share|improve this answer

                                                                  New contributor
                                                                  M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                  Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                    2

                                                                    it seems doesn’t make sense when purposely throwing exception and then directly catch it,
                                                                    it may redesign like this,
                                                                    may change “throw new Exception(“xxxx”);” with “res.setMessage(“xxxx”);”

                                                                    and then may keep catching the exception part in order to catch exception that may happen inside the business logic.

                                                                    public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                                                      Response res = new Response();
                                                                      try{
                                                                          if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                                              //business logic
                                                                          else{
                                                                             res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                                          }
                                                                      }catch(Exception e){
                                                                          res.setMessage(e.getMessage);
                                                                      }
                                                                      return res;
                                                                    }
                                                                    

                                                                    share|improve this answer

                                                                    New contributor
                                                                    M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                    Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                      2

                                                                      2

                                                                      2

                                                                      it seems doesn’t make sense when purposely throwing exception and then directly catch it,
                                                                      it may redesign like this,
                                                                      may change “throw new Exception(“xxxx”);” with “res.setMessage(“xxxx”);”

                                                                      and then may keep catching the exception part in order to catch exception that may happen inside the business logic.

                                                                      public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                                                        Response res = new Response();
                                                                        try{
                                                                            if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                                                //business logic
                                                                            else{
                                                                               res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                                            }
                                                                        }catch(Exception e){
                                                                            res.setMessage(e.getMessage);
                                                                        }
                                                                        return res;
                                                                      }
                                                                      

                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                      New contributor
                                                                      M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                      Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                      it seems doesn’t make sense when purposely throwing exception and then directly catch it,
                                                                      it may redesign like this,
                                                                      may change “throw new Exception(“xxxx”);” with “res.setMessage(“xxxx”);”

                                                                      and then may keep catching the exception part in order to catch exception that may happen inside the business logic.

                                                                      public Response getABC(Request requst) {
                                                                        Response res = new Response();
                                                                        try{
                                                                            if(request.someProperty == 1){
                                                                                //business logic
                                                                            else{
                                                                               res.setMessage("xxxx");
                                                                            }
                                                                        }catch(Exception e){
                                                                            res.setMessage(e.getMessage);
                                                                        }
                                                                        return res;
                                                                      }
                                                                      

                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                      New contributor
                                                                      M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                      Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                      edited yesterday

                                                                      New contributor
                                                                      M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                      Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                      answered yesterday

                                                                      M Fauzan Abdi

                                                                      715

                                                                      715

                                                                      New contributor
                                                                      M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                      Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                      New contributor

                                                                      M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                      Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                      M Fauzan Abdi is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering.
                                                                      Check out our Code of Conduct.

                                                                          2

                                                                          Why did you use try/catch statement when you already throw Checked Exception?

                                                                          Checked exception is usually used in some languages like C++ or Java, but not in new language like Kotlin. I personally restrict to use it.

                                                                          For example, I have a class like this:

                                                                          class ApiService{
                                                                              Response getSomething() throw Exception(); 
                                                                          } 
                                                                          

                                                                          which feels clean and readable, but undermines the utility of the exception handling mechanism. Practically, getSomething() doesn’t offen throw checked exception but still need to behave as it does? This works when there is somebody upstream of ApiService who know how to deal with the unpredictable or unpreventable errors like this. And if you can really know how to deal with it, then go ahead and use something like the example below, otherwise, Unchecked Exception would be sufficient.

                                                                          public Response getSomething(Request req) throws Exception{
                                                                              if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                  Response res = new Response();
                                                                                  // logic 
                                                                              } else {
                                                                                  thows Exception("Some messages go here")
                                                                              }
                                                                          }
                                                                          

                                                                          I will encourage to do in this way:

                                                                          public Response getSomething(Request req){
                                                                          if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                  Response res = new Response();
                                                                                  // logic 
                                                                                  return res;
                                                                              } else {
                                                                                  return ErrorResponse("error message"); // or throw RuntimeException here if you want to
                                                                              }
                                                                          }
                                                                          

                                                                          For more insights, Kotlin which I mentioned before doesn’t support Checked exception because of many reasons.

                                                                          The following is an example interface of the JDK implemented by StringBuilder class:

                                                                          Appendable append(CharSequence csq) throws IOException;
                                                                          

                                                                          What does this signature say? It says that every time I append a string to something (a StringBuilder, some kind of a log, a console, etc.) I have to catch those IOExceptions. Why? Because it might be performing IO (Writer also implements Appendable)… So it results into this kind of code all over the place:

                                                                          try {
                                                                              log.append(message)
                                                                          }
                                                                          catch (IOException e) {
                                                                              // Must be safe
                                                                          }
                                                                          

                                                                          And this is no good, see Effective Java, 3rd Edition, Item 77: Don’t ignore exceptions.

                                                                          Take a look at these links:

                                                                          • Checked and unchecked exception
                                                                          • Java’s checked exceptions were a mistake (Rod Waldhoff)
                                                                          • The Trouble with Checked Exceptions (Anders Hejlsberg)
                                                                          share|improve this answer

                                                                            2

                                                                            Why did you use try/catch statement when you already throw Checked Exception?

                                                                            Checked exception is usually used in some languages like C++ or Java, but not in new language like Kotlin. I personally restrict to use it.

                                                                            For example, I have a class like this:

                                                                            class ApiService{
                                                                                Response getSomething() throw Exception(); 
                                                                            } 
                                                                            

                                                                            which feels clean and readable, but undermines the utility of the exception handling mechanism. Practically, getSomething() doesn’t offen throw checked exception but still need to behave as it does? This works when there is somebody upstream of ApiService who know how to deal with the unpredictable or unpreventable errors like this. And if you can really know how to deal with it, then go ahead and use something like the example below, otherwise, Unchecked Exception would be sufficient.

                                                                            public Response getSomething(Request req) throws Exception{
                                                                                if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                    Response res = new Response();
                                                                                    // logic 
                                                                                } else {
                                                                                    thows Exception("Some messages go here")
                                                                                }
                                                                            }
                                                                            

                                                                            I will encourage to do in this way:

                                                                            public Response getSomething(Request req){
                                                                            if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                    Response res = new Response();
                                                                                    // logic 
                                                                                    return res;
                                                                                } else {
                                                                                    return ErrorResponse("error message"); // or throw RuntimeException here if you want to
                                                                                }
                                                                            }
                                                                            

                                                                            For more insights, Kotlin which I mentioned before doesn’t support Checked exception because of many reasons.

                                                                            The following is an example interface of the JDK implemented by StringBuilder class:

                                                                            Appendable append(CharSequence csq) throws IOException;
                                                                            

                                                                            What does this signature say? It says that every time I append a string to something (a StringBuilder, some kind of a log, a console, etc.) I have to catch those IOExceptions. Why? Because it might be performing IO (Writer also implements Appendable)… So it results into this kind of code all over the place:

                                                                            try {
                                                                                log.append(message)
                                                                            }
                                                                            catch (IOException e) {
                                                                                // Must be safe
                                                                            }
                                                                            

                                                                            And this is no good, see Effective Java, 3rd Edition, Item 77: Don’t ignore exceptions.

                                                                            Take a look at these links:

                                                                            • Checked and unchecked exception
                                                                            • Java’s checked exceptions were a mistake (Rod Waldhoff)
                                                                            • The Trouble with Checked Exceptions (Anders Hejlsberg)
                                                                            share|improve this answer

                                                                              2

                                                                              2

                                                                              2

                                                                              Why did you use try/catch statement when you already throw Checked Exception?

                                                                              Checked exception is usually used in some languages like C++ or Java, but not in new language like Kotlin. I personally restrict to use it.

                                                                              For example, I have a class like this:

                                                                              class ApiService{
                                                                                  Response getSomething() throw Exception(); 
                                                                              } 
                                                                              

                                                                              which feels clean and readable, but undermines the utility of the exception handling mechanism. Practically, getSomething() doesn’t offen throw checked exception but still need to behave as it does? This works when there is somebody upstream of ApiService who know how to deal with the unpredictable or unpreventable errors like this. And if you can really know how to deal with it, then go ahead and use something like the example below, otherwise, Unchecked Exception would be sufficient.

                                                                              public Response getSomething(Request req) throws Exception{
                                                                                  if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                      Response res = new Response();
                                                                                      // logic 
                                                                                  } else {
                                                                                      thows Exception("Some messages go here")
                                                                                  }
                                                                              }
                                                                              

                                                                              I will encourage to do in this way:

                                                                              public Response getSomething(Request req){
                                                                              if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                      Response res = new Response();
                                                                                      // logic 
                                                                                      return res;
                                                                                  } else {
                                                                                      return ErrorResponse("error message"); // or throw RuntimeException here if you want to
                                                                                  }
                                                                              }
                                                                              

                                                                              For more insights, Kotlin which I mentioned before doesn’t support Checked exception because of many reasons.

                                                                              The following is an example interface of the JDK implemented by StringBuilder class:

                                                                              Appendable append(CharSequence csq) throws IOException;
                                                                              

                                                                              What does this signature say? It says that every time I append a string to something (a StringBuilder, some kind of a log, a console, etc.) I have to catch those IOExceptions. Why? Because it might be performing IO (Writer also implements Appendable)… So it results into this kind of code all over the place:

                                                                              try {
                                                                                  log.append(message)
                                                                              }
                                                                              catch (IOException e) {
                                                                                  // Must be safe
                                                                              }
                                                                              

                                                                              And this is no good, see Effective Java, 3rd Edition, Item 77: Don’t ignore exceptions.

                                                                              Take a look at these links:

                                                                              • Checked and unchecked exception
                                                                              • Java’s checked exceptions were a mistake (Rod Waldhoff)
                                                                              • The Trouble with Checked Exceptions (Anders Hejlsberg)
                                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                                              Why did you use try/catch statement when you already throw Checked Exception?

                                                                              Checked exception is usually used in some languages like C++ or Java, but not in new language like Kotlin. I personally restrict to use it.

                                                                              For example, I have a class like this:

                                                                              class ApiService{
                                                                                  Response getSomething() throw Exception(); 
                                                                              } 
                                                                              

                                                                              which feels clean and readable, but undermines the utility of the exception handling mechanism. Practically, getSomething() doesn’t offen throw checked exception but still need to behave as it does? This works when there is somebody upstream of ApiService who know how to deal with the unpredictable or unpreventable errors like this. And if you can really know how to deal with it, then go ahead and use something like the example below, otherwise, Unchecked Exception would be sufficient.

                                                                              public Response getSomething(Request req) throws Exception{
                                                                                  if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                      Response res = new Response();
                                                                                      // logic 
                                                                                  } else {
                                                                                      thows Exception("Some messages go here")
                                                                                  }
                                                                              }
                                                                              

                                                                              I will encourage to do in this way:

                                                                              public Response getSomething(Request req){
                                                                              if (req.someProperty == 1) {
                                                                                      Response res = new Response();
                                                                                      // logic 
                                                                                      return res;
                                                                                  } else {
                                                                                      return ErrorResponse("error message"); // or throw RuntimeException here if you want to
                                                                                  }
                                                                              }
                                                                              

                                                                              For more insights, Kotlin which I mentioned before doesn’t support Checked exception because of many reasons.

                                                                              The following is an example interface of the JDK implemented by StringBuilder class:

                                                                              Appendable append(CharSequence csq) throws IOException;
                                                                              

                                                                              What does this signature say? It says that every time I append a string to something (a StringBuilder, some kind of a log, a console, etc.) I have to catch those IOExceptions. Why? Because it might be performing IO (Writer also implements Appendable)… So it results into this kind of code all over the place:

                                                                              try {
                                                                                  log.append(message)
                                                                              }
                                                                              catch (IOException e) {
                                                                                  // Must be safe
                                                                              }
                                                                              

                                                                              And this is no good, see Effective Java, 3rd Edition, Item 77: Don’t ignore exceptions.

                                                                              Take a look at these links:

                                                                              • Checked and unchecked exception
                                                                              • Java’s checked exceptions were a mistake (Rod Waldhoff)
                                                                              • The Trouble with Checked Exceptions (Anders Hejlsberg)
                                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                                              share|improve this answer

                                                                              edited 15 hours ago

                                                                              answered yesterday

                                                                              nhp

                                                                              1,509414

                                                                              1,509414

                                                                                  1

                                                                                  The exception mechanism has three purposes:

                                                                                  1. Immediately disable normal program flow and go back up the call stack until a suitable catch-block is found.
                                                                                  2. Provide context in form of the exception type, message and optionally additional fields that the catch-block code can use to determine course of action.
                                                                                  3. A stack trace for programmers to see to do forensic analysis. (This used to be very expensive to make).

                                                                                  This is a lot of functionality for a mechanism to have. In order to keep programs as simple as we can – for future maintainers – we should therefore only use this mechanism if we really have to.

                                                                                  In your example code I would expect any throw statement to be a very serious thing indicating that something is wrong and code is expected to handle this emergency somewhere. I would need to understand what went wrong and how severe it is before going on reading the rest of the program. Here it is just a fancy return of a String, and I would scratch my head and wonder “Why was this necessary?” and that extra effort could have been better spent.

                                                                                  So this code is not as good as it can be, but I would only change it if you had the time to do a full test too. Changing program flow can introduce subtle errors and you need to have the changes fresh in your mind if you need to fix anything.

                                                                                  share|improve this answer

                                                                                    1

                                                                                    The exception mechanism has three purposes:

                                                                                    1. Immediately disable normal program flow and go back up the call stack until a suitable catch-block is found.
                                                                                    2. Provide context in form of the exception type, message and optionally additional fields that the catch-block code can use to determine course of action.
                                                                                    3. A stack trace for programmers to see to do forensic analysis. (This used to be very expensive to make).

                                                                                    This is a lot of functionality for a mechanism to have. In order to keep programs as simple as we can – for future maintainers – we should therefore only use this mechanism if we really have to.

                                                                                    In your example code I would expect any throw statement to be a very serious thing indicating that something is wrong and code is expected to handle this emergency somewhere. I would need to understand what went wrong and how severe it is before going on reading the rest of the program. Here it is just a fancy return of a String, and I would scratch my head and wonder “Why was this necessary?” and that extra effort could have been better spent.

                                                                                    So this code is not as good as it can be, but I would only change it if you had the time to do a full test too. Changing program flow can introduce subtle errors and you need to have the changes fresh in your mind if you need to fix anything.

                                                                                    share|improve this answer

                                                                                      1

                                                                                      1

                                                                                      1

                                                                                      The exception mechanism has three purposes:

                                                                                      1. Immediately disable normal program flow and go back up the call stack until a suitable catch-block is found.
                                                                                      2. Provide context in form of the exception type, message and optionally additional fields that the catch-block code can use to determine course of action.
                                                                                      3. A stack trace for programmers to see to do forensic analysis. (This used to be very expensive to make).

                                                                                      This is a lot of functionality for a mechanism to have. In order to keep programs as simple as we can – for future maintainers – we should therefore only use this mechanism if we really have to.

                                                                                      In your example code I would expect any throw statement to be a very serious thing indicating that something is wrong and code is expected to handle this emergency somewhere. I would need to understand what went wrong and how severe it is before going on reading the rest of the program. Here it is just a fancy return of a String, and I would scratch my head and wonder “Why was this necessary?” and that extra effort could have been better spent.

                                                                                      So this code is not as good as it can be, but I would only change it if you had the time to do a full test too. Changing program flow can introduce subtle errors and you need to have the changes fresh in your mind if you need to fix anything.

                                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                                      The exception mechanism has three purposes:

                                                                                      1. Immediately disable normal program flow and go back up the call stack until a suitable catch-block is found.
                                                                                      2. Provide context in form of the exception type, message and optionally additional fields that the catch-block code can use to determine course of action.
                                                                                      3. A stack trace for programmers to see to do forensic analysis. (This used to be very expensive to make).

                                                                                      This is a lot of functionality for a mechanism to have. In order to keep programs as simple as we can – for future maintainers – we should therefore only use this mechanism if we really have to.

                                                                                      In your example code I would expect any throw statement to be a very serious thing indicating that something is wrong and code is expected to handle this emergency somewhere. I would need to understand what went wrong and how severe it is before going on reading the rest of the program. Here it is just a fancy return of a String, and I would scratch my head and wonder “Why was this necessary?” and that extra effort could have been better spent.

                                                                                      So this code is not as good as it can be, but I would only change it if you had the time to do a full test too. Changing program flow can introduce subtle errors and you need to have the changes fresh in your mind if you need to fix anything.

                                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                                      share|improve this answer

                                                                                      answered yesterday

                                                                                      Thorbjørn Ravn Andersen

                                                                                      56.9k23145288

                                                                                      56.9k23145288

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                                                                                          Winston Churchill

                                                                                          Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

                                                                                          The Right Honourable

                                                                                          Sir Winston Churchill

                                                                                          KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA
                                                                                          Churchill wearing a suit, standing and holding a chair

                                                                                          Winston Churchill in the Canadian Parliament, December 1941 by Yousuf Karsh
                                                                                          Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          26 October 1951 – 5 April 1955
                                                                                          Monarch
                                                                                          • George VI
                                                                                          • Elizabeth II
                                                                                          Deputy Anthony Eden
                                                                                          Preceded by Clement Attlee
                                                                                          Succeeded by Anthony Eden
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945
                                                                                          Monarch George VI
                                                                                          Deputy Clement Attlee
                                                                                          Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
                                                                                          Succeeded by Clement Attlee
                                                                                          Leadership positions
                                                                                          Leader of the Opposition
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          26 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
                                                                                          Monarch George VI
                                                                                          Prime Minister Clement Attlee
                                                                                          Preceded by Clement Attlee
                                                                                          Succeeded by Clement Attlee
                                                                                          Leader of the Conservative Party
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          9 November 1940 – 6 April 1955
                                                                                          Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
                                                                                          Succeeded by Anthony Eden
                                                                                          Ministerial offices 1939–1952
                                                                                          Minister of Defence
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          28 October 1951 – 1 March 1952
                                                                                          Preceded by Manny Shinwell
                                                                                          Succeeded by Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis
                                                                                          In office
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                                                                                          Preceded by Ernle Chatfield, 1st Baron Chatfield (Coordination of Defence)
                                                                                          Succeeded by Clement Attlee
                                                                                          First Lord of the Admiralty
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          3 September 1939 – 11 May 1940
                                                                                          Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
                                                                                          Preceded by James Stanhope, 7th Earl Stanhope
                                                                                          Succeeded by A. V. Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough
                                                                                          Ministerial offices 1908–1929
                                                                                          Chancellor of the Exchequer
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
                                                                                          Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
                                                                                          Preceded by Philip Snowden
                                                                                          Succeeded by Philip Snowden
                                                                                          Secretary of State for the Colonies
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          13 February 1921 – 19 October 1922
                                                                                          Prime Minister David Lloyd George
                                                                                          Preceded by Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner
                                                                                          Succeeded by Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire
                                                                                          Secretary of State for Air
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
                                                                                          Prime Minister David Lloyd George
                                                                                          Preceded by William Weir, 1st Viscount Weir
                                                                                          Succeeded by Frederick Guest
                                                                                          Secretary of State for War
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          10 January 1919 – 13 February 1921
                                                                                          Prime Minister David Lloyd George
                                                                                          Preceded by Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner
                                                                                          Succeeded by Laming Worthington-Evans
                                                                                          Minister of Munitions
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          17 July 1917 – 10 January 1919
                                                                                          Prime Minister David Lloyd George
                                                                                          Preceded by Christopher Addison
                                                                                          Succeeded by Andrew Weir, 1st Baron Inverforth
                                                                                          Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          25 May 1915 – 25 November 1915
                                                                                          Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
                                                                                          Preceded by Edwin Samuel Montagu
                                                                                          Succeeded by Herbert Samuel
                                                                                          First Lord of the Admiralty
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          24 October 1911 – 25 May 1915
                                                                                          Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
                                                                                          Preceded by Reginald McKenna
                                                                                          Succeeded by Arthur Balfour
                                                                                          Home Secretary
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          19 February 1910 – 24 October 1911
                                                                                          Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
                                                                                          Preceded by Herbert Gladstone
                                                                                          Succeeded by Reginald McKenna
                                                                                          President of the Board of Trade
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          12 April 1908 – 14 February 1910
                                                                                          Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
                                                                                          Preceded by David Lloyd George
                                                                                          Succeeded by Sydney Buxton
                                                                                          Constituencies represented
                                                                                          Member of Parliament
                                                                                          for Woodford
                                                                                          In office
                                                                                          5 July 1945 – 15 October 1964
                                                                                          Preceded by Constituency established
                                                                                          Succeeded by Constituency abolished
                                                                                          Member of Parliament
                                                                                          for Epping
                                                                                          In office
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                                                                                          Preceded by Leonard Lyle
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                                                                                          Member of Parliament
                                                                                          for Dundee
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                                                                                          Serving with Alexander Wilkie
                                                                                          Preceded by Edmund Robertson
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                                                                                          for Manchester North West
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                                                                                          Preceded by Walter Runciman
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                                                                                          Personal details
                                                                                          Born
                                                                                          Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill

                                                                                          (1874-11-30)30 November 1874
                                                                                          Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England

                                                                                          Died 24 January 1965(1965-01-24) (aged 90)
                                                                                          Kensington, London, England
                                                                                          Resting place St Martin’s Church, Bladon
                                                                                          Political party
                                                                                          • Conservative
                                                                                            (1900–1904, 1924–1964)
                                                                                          • Liberal
                                                                                            (1904–1924)
                                                                                          Spouse(s)
                                                                                          Clementine Hozier (m. 1908)
                                                                                          Children
                                                                                          • Diana
                                                                                          • Randolph
                                                                                          • Sarah
                                                                                          • Marigold
                                                                                          • Mary
                                                                                          Parents
                                                                                          • Lord Randolph Churchill
                                                                                          • Jennie Jerome
                                                                                          Education
                                                                                          • Harrow School
                                                                                          • Royal Military College, Sandhurst
                                                                                          Signature
                                                                                          Military service
                                                                                          Allegiance  United Kingdom
                                                                                          Service/branch
                                                                                          • British Army
                                                                                          • Territorial Army
                                                                                          Years of service
                                                                                          • 1893–1924
                                                                                          Rank See list
                                                                                          Commands 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
                                                                                          Battles/wars
                                                                                          • Mahdist War
                                                                                          • Second Boer War
                                                                                          • First World War
                                                                                          Awards See list

                                                                                          Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, statesman, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As Prime Minister, Churchill led Britain to victory in the Second World War. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, he began and ended his parliamentary career as a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but for twenty years from 1904 he was a prominent member of the Liberal Party.

                                                                                          Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to an aristocratic family. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith’s Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers’ social security. During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign; after it proved a disaster, he resigned from government and served in the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, and was subsequently Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin’s Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy.

                                                                                          Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain’s resignation in 1940, Churchill replaced him. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort, resulting in victory in 1945. His wartime leadership has been widely praised; however, several of his decisions have proved controversial. After the Conservatives’ defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an “iron curtain” of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. He was elected prime minister in the 1951 election. His second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government emphasised house-building and developed an atomic bomb. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral.

                                                                                          Widely considered one of the 20th century’s most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Also praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. However, his imperialist views and comments on race,[1] as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.[2][3][4][5]

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                                                                                          Contents

                                                                                          • 1 Early life

                                                                                            • 1.1 Childhood and schooling: 1874–1895
                                                                                            • 1.2 Cuba, India, and Sudan: 1895–1899
                                                                                            • 1.3 Attempts at a Parliamentary career and South Africa: 1899–1900
                                                                                          • 2 Early political career

                                                                                            • 2.1 Early years in Parliament: 1900–1905
                                                                                            • 2.2 Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies: 1905–1908
                                                                                            • 2.3 President of the Board of Trade: 1908–1910
                                                                                            • 2.4 Home Secretary: 1910–1911
                                                                                            • 2.5 First Lord of the Admiralty: 1911–1915

                                                                                              • 2.5.1 First World War
                                                                                            • 2.6 On the Western Front: 1915–1916
                                                                                            • 2.7 Return to Parliament
                                                                                            • 2.8 Constitutionalist
                                                                                            • 2.9 Rejoining the Conservative Party

                                                                                              • 2.9.1 Chancellor of the Exchequer: 1924–1929
                                                                                            • 2.10 Political isolation

                                                                                              • 2.10.1 Indian independence
                                                                                              • 2.10.2 German and Italian rearmament and conflicts in Manchuria and Abyssinia
                                                                                              • 2.10.3 Germany and rearmament: 1936
                                                                                              • 2.10.4 Abdication crisis
                                                                                          • 3 Return from exile

                                                                                            • 3.1 Return to the Admiralty
                                                                                          • 4 First term as prime minister: 1940–1945

                                                                                            • 4.1 “We shall never surrender”
                                                                                            • 4.2 Mental and physical health
                                                                                            • 4.3 Relations with the United States
                                                                                            • 4.4 Relations with the Soviet Union
                                                                                            • 4.5 Role in Bengal famine
                                                                                            • 4.6 Dresden bombings controversy
                                                                                            • 4.7 End of the Second World War
                                                                                            • 4.8 Syria crisis
                                                                                          • 5 In opposition: 1945–1951

                                                                                            • 5.1 Caretaker government and 1945 election
                                                                                            • 5.2 Opposition leader

                                                                                              • 5.2.1 European unity
                                                                                          • 6 Second term as prime minister: 1951–1955

                                                                                            • 6.1 Return to government

                                                                                              • 6.1.1 Domestic policy
                                                                                            • 6.2 Colonial affairs

                                                                                              • 6.2.1 Kenya and Malaya
                                                                                            • 6.3 Relations with the US and the quest for a summit
                                                                                            • 6.4 Stroke and resignation
                                                                                          • 7 Retirement and death: 1955–1965

                                                                                            • 7.1 Funeral
                                                                                          • 8 Artist, historian, and writer
                                                                                          • 9 Political ideology

                                                                                            • 9.1 Links to political parties
                                                                                          • 10 Personal life

                                                                                            • 10.1 Marriage and children
                                                                                            • 10.2 Relationship with Lady Castlerosse
                                                                                            • 10.3 Religion
                                                                                            • 10.4 Pets and animals
                                                                                          • 11 Honours

                                                                                            • 11.1 Military ranks and appointments
                                                                                          • 12 Reputation and legacy

                                                                                            • 12.1 Cultural depictions
                                                                                          • 13 See also
                                                                                          • 14 References

                                                                                            • 14.1 Notes
                                                                                            • 14.2 Sources
                                                                                          • 15 Further reading

                                                                                            • 15.1 Primary sources
                                                                                            • 15.2 Secondary sources
                                                                                          • 16 External links

                                                                                            • 16.1 Bibliographies and online collections
                                                                                            • 16.2 Programmes about Churchill
                                                                                            • 16.3 Recordings
                                                                                            • 16.4 Museums, archives and libraries

                                                                                          Early life

                                                                                          Childhood and schooling: 1874–1895

                                                                                          Blenheim Palace, Churchill’s ancestral home and the place of his birth

                                                                                          Churchill was born at the family’s ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874,[6][7] at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power.[8] A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy,[9] and thus he was born into the country’s governing elite.[10] His paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament (MP) for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.[11] His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873.[12] His mother, Jennie Churchill (née Jerome), was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance.[13] The couple had met in August 1873, and were engaged three days later, marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874.[14] The couple lived beyond their income and were frequently in debt;[15] according to the biographer Sebastian Haffner, the family were “rich by normal standards but poor by those of the rich”.[16]

                                                                                          Churchill, aged six, in 1881[17]

                                                                                          In 1876 John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family’s relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom.[18] It was here that Jennie’s second son, Jack, was born in 1880;[19] there has been speculation that Randolph was not his biological father.[20] Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were effectively estranged, during which she had many suitors.[21] Churchill had virtually no relationship with his father;[22] referring to his mother, Churchill later stated that “I loved her dearly—but at a distance.”[23] His relationship with Jack would be warm, and they were close at various points in their lives.[20] In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess,[24] while he and his brother were cared for primarily by their nanny, Elizabeth Ann Everest.[25] Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her “Woomany”;[26] he later wrote that “She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived.”[27]

                                                                                          Aged seven, he began boarding at St. George’s School in Ascot, Berkshire; he hated it, did poorly academically, and regularly misbehaved.[28] Visits home were to Connaught Place in London, where his parents had settled,[29] while they also took him on his first foreign holiday, to Gastein in Austria-Hungary.[30] As a result of poor health, in September 1884 he moved to Brunswick School in Hove; there, his academic performance improved but he continued to misbehave.[31] He narrowly passed the entrance exam which allowed him to begin studies at the elite Harrow School in April 1888.[32] There, his academics remained high—he excelled particularly in history—but teachers complained that he was unpunctual and careless.[33] He wrote poetry and letters which were published in the school magazine, Harrovian,[34] and won a fencing competition.[35] His father insisted that he be prepared for a career in the military, and so Churchill’s last three years at Harrow were spent in the army form.[36] He performed poorly in most of his exams.[37]

                                                                                          On a holiday to Bournemouth in January 1893, he fell and was knocked unconscious for three days.[38] In March he took a job at a cram school in Lexham Gardens, South Kensington,[38] before holidaying in Switzerland and Italy that summer.[39]
                                                                                          He made three attempts to be admitted to the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, only succeeding on the third.[40] There, he was accepted as a cadet in the cavalry,[41] starting his education in September 1893.[37] In August 1894 he and his brother holidayed in Belgium,[42] and he spent free time in London, joining protests at the closing of the Empire Theatre, which he had frequented.[43] His Sandhurst education lasted for 15 months; he graduated in December 1894.[37] Shortly after Churchill finished at Sandhurst, in January 1895, his father died; this led Churchill to adopt the belief that members of his family inevitably died young.[44]

                                                                                          Cuba, India, and Sudan: 1895–1899

                                                                                          Churchill in the military dress uniform of the Fourth Queen’s Own Hussars at Aldershot in 1895.[45]

                                                                                          In February 1895, Churchill was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 4th Queen’s Own Hussars regiment of the British Army, based at Aldershot.[46] This position earned him a wage of £150 a year, which was far outstripped by his expenditure.[37] In July, he rushed to Crouch Hill, North London to sit with Everest as she lay dying, subsequently organising her funeral.[47] Churchill was eager to witness military action and used his mother’s influence to try to get himself posted to a war zone.[48] In the autumn of 1895, he and Reginald Barnes traveled to Cuba to observe its war of independence; they joined Spanish troops attempting to suppress independence fighters and were caught up in several skirmishes.[49] In North America, he also spent time in New York City, staying with the wealthy politician Bourke Cockran at the latter’s Fifth Avenue residence; Cockran profoundly influenced the young Churchill.[50] Churchill admired the United States, writing to his brother that it was “a very great country” and telling his mother “what an extraordinary people the Americans are!”[51]

                                                                                          With the Hussars, Churchill arrived in Bombay, British India, in October 1896.[52] They were soon transferred to Bangalore, where he shared a bungalow with Barnes.[53] Describing India as a “godless land of snobs and bores”,[54] Churchill remained posted there for 19 months, during the course of which he made three visits to Calcutta, expeditions to Hyderabad and the North West Frontier, and two visits back to Britain.[55] Believing himself poorly educated, he began a project of self-education,[56] reading the work of Plato, Adam Smith, Charles Darwin, and Henry Hallam.[57] Most influential for him were however Edward Gibbon’s The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Winwood Reade’s The Martyrdom of Man, and the writings of Thomas Babington Macaulay.[58]

                                                                                          Keenly interested in British parliamentary affairs,[59] in a private letter he declared himself “a Liberal in all but name”, but added that he could never endorse the Liberal Party’s support for Irish home rule.[60] Instead, he allied himself to the Tory democracy wing of the Conservative Party, and on a visit home gave his first public speech for the Conservative’s Primrose League in Bath.[61] Reflecting a mix of reformist and conservative perspectives, he supported the promotion of secular, non-denominational education while opposing women’s suffrage, referring to the Suffragettes as “a ridiculous movement”.[62]

                                                                                          A depiction of the Battle of Omdurman; in the battle, Churchill took part in a cavalry charge

                                                                                          Churchill decided to join the Malakand Field Force led by Bindon Blood in its campaign against Mohmand rebels in the Swat Valley of Northwest India.[63] Blood agreed on the condition that Churchill be assigned as a journalist; to ensure this, he gained accreditation from The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph, for whom he wrote regular updates.[64] In letters to family, he described how both sides in the conflict slaughtered each other’s wounded, although he omitted any reference to such actions by British troops in his published reports.[65] He remained with the British troops for six weeks before returning to Bangalore in October 1897.[66] There, he wrote his first book, The Story of the Malakand Field Force, which was published by Longman to largely positive reviews.[67] He also wrote his only work of fiction, Savrola, a roman à clef set in an imagined Balkan kingdom. It was serialised in Macmillan’s Magazine between May–December 1899 before appearing in book form.[68]

                                                                                          While staying in Bangalore in the first half of 1898, Churchill explored the possibility of joining Herbert Kitchener’s military campaign in the Sudan.[69] Kitchener was initially reticent, claiming that Churchill was simply seeking publicity and medals.[70] After spending time in Calcutta, Meerut, and Peshawar, Churchill sailed back to England from Bombay in June.[71] There, he used his contacts—including a visit to the Prime Minister Lord Salisbury at 10 Downing Street—to get himself assigned to Kitchener’s campaign.[72] He agreed that he would write a column describing the events for The Morning Post.[73] He sailed for Egypt, where he joined the 21st Lancers at Cairo before they headed south along the River Nile to take part in the Battle of Omdurman against the army of Sudanese leader Abdallahi ibn Muhammad.[74] Churchill was critical of Kitchener’s actions during the war, particularly the latter’s unmerciful treatment of enemy wounded and his desecration of Muhammad Ahmad’s tomb in Omdurman.[75] Following the battle, Churchill gave skin from his chest for a graft for an injured officer.[76] Back in England by October, Churchill wrote an account of the campaign, published as The River War in November 1899.[77]

                                                                                          Attempts at a Parliamentary career and South Africa: 1899–1900

                                                                                          Churchill in the Lower House of the Houses of Parliament in 1900.[78]

                                                                                          Deciding that he wanted a parliamentary career, Churchill pursued political contacts and gave addresses at three Conservative Party meetings.[79] It was also at this point that he courted Pamela Plowden, later Countess of Lytton; although a relationship did not ensue, they remained lifelong friends.[80] In December he returned to India for three months, largely to indulge his love of the game polo.[80] While in Calcutta, he stayed for a week in the home of Viceroy George Nathaniel Curzon.[81] On the journey home, he spent two weeks at the Savoy Hotel in Cairo, where he was introduced to the Khedive Abbas II,[82] before arriving in England in April.[83] He refocused his attention on politics, addressing further Conservative meetings and networking at events such as a Rothschild’s dinner party.[84] He was selected as one of the two Conservative parliamentary candidates at the June 1899 by-election in Oldham, Lancashire.[85] Although the Oldham seats had previously been held by the Conservatives, the election was a narrow Liberal victory.[86]

                                                                                          Anticipating the outbreak of the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics, Churchill sailed from Southampton to South Africa as a journalist writing for the Daily Mail and Morning Post.[87] From Cape Town, in October he travelled to the conflict zone near Ladysmith, then besieged by Boer troops, before spending time at Estcourt before heading for Colenso.[88] After his train was derailed by Boer artillery shelling, he was captured as a prisoner of war and interned in a Boer POW camp in Pretoria.[89] In December, Churchill and two other inmates escaped the prison over the latrine wall. Churchill stowed aboard a freight train and later hid within a mine, shielded by the sympathetic English mine owner. Wanted by the Boer authorities, he again hid aboard a freight train and travelled to safety in Portuguese East Africa.[90]

                                                                                          Sailing to Durban, Churchill found that his escape had attracted much publicity in Britain.[91] He did not return home, and in January 1900 he was appointed a lieutenant in the South African Light Horse regiment, joining Redvers Buller’s fight to relieve the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria.[92] In his writings during the campaign, he chastised British hatred for the Boer, calling for them to be treated with “generosity and tolerance” and urging a “speedy peace”;[93] after the war was over he would call for the British to be magnanimous in victory.[94] He was among the first British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. He and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards.[95] After the victory in Pretoria, he returned to Cape Town and sailed for Britain in July. In May, while he had still been in South Africa, his Morning Post despatches had been published as London to Ladysmith via Pretoria, which sold well.[96]

                                                                                          Early political career

                                                                                          Early years in Parliament: 1900–1905

                                                                                          Churchill’s election poster for the 1900 general election in Oldham, at which he was elected for the first time.

                                                                                          Arriving in Southampton in July 1900,[97] Churchill rented a flat in London’s Mayfair, using it as his base for the next six years,[98] and hired a personal secretary.[99] He stood again as a Conservative candidate for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election, securing a narrow victory.[100] At age 25, he was now an MP.[101] MPs were not then paid a wage and, to earn money, Churchill embarked on a speaking tour focusing on his South African experiences; after touring Britain in late October and November he proceeded to the US, where his first lecture was introduced by the writer Mark Twain.[102] In the US, he met President William McKinley and Vice President Theodore Roosevelt;[103] the latter invited Churchill to dinner, but took a dislike to him.[104] Churchill then crossed to Canada to give more lectures,[105] and in spring 1901 gave talks in Paris, Madrid, and Gibraltar.[99] In October 1900, he published Ian Hamilton’s March, a book about his South African experiences.[101]

                                                                                          In February 1901, Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons, where his maiden speech gained widespread press coverage.[106] He associated with a group of Conservatives known as the Hughligans,[107] although he was critical of the Conservative government on various issues. He condemned the British execution of a Boer military commandant,[108] and voiced concerns about the levels of public expenditure;[109] in response, Prime Minister Arthur Balfour asked him to join a parliamentary select committee on the topic.[110] He opposed an increase in army funding, suggesting that any additional military expenditure should go to the navy.[111] This upset the Conservative front bench but gained support from Liberals.[112] He increasingly socialised with senior Liberals, and particularly the Liberal Imperialists like H. H. Asquith.[112] In this context, he later wrote, he “drifted steadily to the left” of British parliamentary politics.[108] He privately considered “the gradual creation by an evolutionary process of a Democratic or Progressive wing to the Conservative Party”,[113] or alternately a “Central Party” to unite the Conservatives and Liberals.[114]

                                                                                          A painting of the young Churchill by Edwin Arthur Ward

                                                                                          In the House of Commons, Churchill increasingly voted with the Liberal opposition against the government.[115] In February 1903, he was among 18 Conservative MPs who voted against the government’s increase in military expenditure.[116] He backed the Liberal vote of censure against the use of Chinese indentured labourers in South Africa, and in favour of a Liberal bill to restore legal rights to trade unions.[115] His April 1904 parliamentary speech upholding the rights of trade unions was described by the pro-Conservative Daily Mail as “Radicalism of the reddest type”.[117] In May 1903, the Liberal Unionist MP Joseph Chamberlain, then the Secretary of State for the Colonies in a Conservative government, called for the introduction of tariffs on goods imported into the British Empire from outside; Churchill became a leading Conservative voice against such economic protectionism.[118] Describing himself as a “sober admirer” of “the principles of Free Trade”,[119] in July he was a founding member of the anti-protectionist Free Food League.[120] In October, Balfour’s government sided with Chamberlain and announced protectionist legislation.[121]

                                                                                          Churchill’s outspoken criticism of Balfour’s government and imperial protectionism, coupled with a letter of support he sent to a Liberal candidate in Ludlow, angered many Conservatives.[122] In December 1903, the Oldham Conservative Association informed him that it would not support his candidature in the next general election.[123] In March 1904, Balfour and the Conservative front bench walked out of the House of Commons during one of his speeches; he described their response as “a very unpleasant and disconcerting demonstration”.[124] In May he expressed opposition to the government’s proposed Aliens Bill, which was designed to curb Jewish migration into Britain.[125] He stated that the bill would “appeal to insular prejudice against foreigners, to racial prejudice against Jews, and to labour prejudice against competition” and expressed himself in favour of “the old tolerant and generous practice of free entry and asylum to which this country has so long adhered and from which it has so greatly gained.”[125] On 31 May 1904, he crossed the floor, defecting from the Conservatives to sit as a member of the Liberal Party in the House of Commons.[126]

                                                                                          Churchill in 1904

                                                                                          Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies: 1905–1908

                                                                                          Churchill and German Emperor Wilhelm II during a military autumn maneuver near Breslau, Silesia, Germany in 1906.

                                                                                          In December, Balfour resigned as Prime Minister and King Edward VII invited the Liberal leader Henry Campbell-Bannerman to form a new government.[127] Hoping to secure a working majority in the House of Commons, Campbell-Bannerman called a general election for January 1906.[128] The Liberals won with 377 seats to the Conservatives’ 157.[129] Having had a previous invitation from the Manchester Liberals to stand in their constituency,[130] Churchill did so, winning the Manchester North West seat with a majority of 1241.[131] January also saw the publication of Churchill’s biography of his father, a work he had been working on for several years.[132] He received an advance payment of £8000 for the book, the highest ever paid for a political biography in Britain to that point;[133] on publication, it was generally well received.[134] It was also at this time that the first biography of Churchill himself, written by the Liberal Alexander MacCallum Scott, was published.[135]

                                                                                          In the new government, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonial Office, a position that he had requested.[136] He worked beneath the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin,[137] and took Edward Marsh as his secretary; the latter remained Churchill’s secretary for 25 years.[138] In this junior ministerial position, Churchill was first tasked with helping to draft a constitution for the Transvaal.[139] In 1906, he helped oversee the granting of a government to the Orange Free State.[140] In dealing with southern Africa, he sought to ensure equality between the British and Boer.[141] He also announced a gradual phasing out of the use of Chinese indentured labourers in South Africa; he and the government decided that a sudden ban would cause too much upset in the colony and might damage the economy.[142] He expressed concerns about the relations between European settlers and the indigenous southern African population; after Zulu launched the Bambatha Rebellion in Natal, he complained of Europeans’ “disgusting butchery of the natives”.[143]

                                                                                          In August 1906, Churchill holidayed on a yacht in Deauville, France, spending much of his time playing polo or gambling.[144] From there he proceeded to Paris and then Switzerland—where he climbed the Eggishorn—and then to Berlin and Silesia, where he was a guest of Kaiser Wilhelm II.[145] He went then to Venice, and from there toured Italy by motorcar with his friend, Lionel Rothschild.[146] In May 1907, he holidayed at the home of another friend, Maurice de Forest, in Biarritz.[147] In the autumn, he embarked on a tour of Europe and Africa.[147] Traveling through France and then Italy, he travelled to Malta and then Cyprus, before moving through the Suez Canal to Aden and Berbera.[148] Sailing to Mombasa, he travelled by rail through the Kenya Colony—stopping for big game hunting in Simba—before heading through the Uganda Protectorate and then sailing up the River Nile.[149] He wrote about his experiences for Strand Magazine and later published them in book form as My African Journey.[150]

                                                                                          President of the Board of Trade: 1908–1910

                                                                                          When Asquith succeeded Campbell-Bannerman in 1908, Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade.[151] Aged 33, he was the youngest Cabinet member since 1866.[152] Newly appointed Cabinet ministers were legally obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; in April, Churchill lost Manchester North to the Conservative candidate by 429 votes.[153] The Liberals then stood him in a by-election in the Scottish safe seat of Dundee, where he won comfortably.[154] In his Cabinet role, Churchill worked with Liberal politician David Lloyd George to champion social reform.[155] In one speech Churchill stated that although the “vanguard” of the British people “enjoys all the delights of all the ages, our rearguard struggles out into conditions which are crueller than barbarism”.[156] To deal with this, he promoted what he called a “network of State intervention and regulation” akin to that in Germany.[157] His speeches on these issues were published in the volumes Liberalism and the Social Problem and The People’s Rights.[158]

                                                                                          Churchill was married at St Margaret’s in Westminster

                                                                                          One of the first tasks he faced was in arbitrating an industrial dispute among ship-workers and their employers on the River Tyne.[159] He then established a Standing Court of Arbitration to deal with future industrial disputes,[160] establishing a reputation as a conciliator.[161] Arguing that workers should have their working hours reduced, Churchill promoted the Mines Eight Hours Bill—which legally prohibited miners working more than an eight-hour day—introducing its second reading in the House of Commons.[162] In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Bill to parliament, which would establish a Board of Trade which could prosecute exploitative employers, establish the principle of minimum wage, and the right of workers to have meal breaks. The bill passed with a large majority.[163] In May, he proposed the Labour Exchanges Bill which sought to establish over 200 Labour Exchanges through which the unemployed would be assisted in finding employment.[164] He also promoted the idea of an unemployment insurance scheme, which would be part-funded by the state.[165]

                                                                                          To ensure funding for these social reforms, he and Lloyd George denounced Reginald McKennas’ expansion of warship production.[166][167] Churchill openly ridiculed those who thought war with Germany was inevitable[168]—according to biographer Roy Jenkins he was going through “a pro-German phase”[169]—and in autumn 1909 he visited Germany, spending time with the Kaiser and observing German Army manoeuvres.[170] In his personal life, Churchill proposed marriage to Clementine Hozier;[171] they were married in September at St Margaret’s, Westminster.[172] They honeymooned in Baveno, Venice, and Moravia – Veveří Castle in Brno [173] before settling into a London home at 33 Eccleston Square.[174] The following July they had a daughter, Diana.[175]

                                                                                          To pass its social reforms into law, Asquith’s Liberal government presented them in the form of the People’s Budget.[176] Conservative opponents of the reform set up the Budget Protest League; supporters of it established the Budget League, of which Churchill became president.[177] The budget passed in the House of Commons but was rejected by the Conservative peers who dominated the House of Lords; this threatened Churchill’s social reforms.[178] Churchill warned that such upper-class obstruction would anger working-class Britons and could lead to class war.[179] To deal with the deadlock, the government called a January 1910 general election, which resulted in a narrow Liberal victory; Churchill retained his seat at Dundee.[180] After the election, he proposed the abolition of the House of Lords in a cabinet memorandum, suggesting that it be replaced either by a unicameral system or by a new, smaller second chamber that lacked an in-built advantage for the Conservatives.[181] In April, the Lords relented and the budget was passed.[182]

                                                                                          Home Secretary: 1910–1911

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                                                                                          I wanted to draw the attention of the country, by means of cases perfectly legitimate in themselves, to the evil by which 7,000 lads of the poorer classes are sent to gaol every year for offences for which, if the noble Lord had committed them at College, he would not have been subjected to the slightest degree of inconvenience.

                                                                                          —Winston Churchill in the House of Commons[183]

                                                                                          In February 1910, Churchill was promoted to Home Secretary, giving him control over the police and prison services,[184] and he implemented a prison reform programme.[185] He introduced a distinction between criminal and political prisoners, with prison rules for the latter being relaxed.[186] He tried to establish libraries for prisoners,[187] and introduced a measure ensuring that each prison must put on either a lecture or a concert for the entertainment of prisoners four times a year.[188] He reduced the length of solitary confinement for first offenders to one month and for recidivists to three months,[187] and spoke out against what he regarded as the excessively lengthy sentences meted out to perpetrators of certain crimes.[186] He proposed the abolition of automatic imprisonment of those who failed to pay fines,[189] and put a stop to the imprisonment of those aged between 16 and 21 except in cases where they had committed the most serious offences.[190] Of the 43 capital sentences passed while he was Home Secretary, he commuted 21 of them.[191]

                                                                                          One of the major domestic issues in Britain was that of women’s suffrage. By this point, Churchill supported giving women the vote, although would only back a bill to that effect if it had majority support from the (male) electorate.[192] His proposed solution was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Asquith and women’s suffrage remained unresolved until 1918.[193] Many Suffragettes took Churchill for a committed opponent of women’s suffrage,[194] and targeted his meetings for protest.[193] In November 1910, the suffragist Hugh Franklin attacked Churchill with a whip; Franklin was arrested and imprisoned for six weeks.[194] It was these militant suffragettes who were the primary beneficiaries of Churchill’s relaxed rules for those categorised as ‘political’ prisoners.[186]

                                                                                          Churchill photographed at the Siege of Sidney Street

                                                                                          In the summer of 1910, Churchill spent two months on de Forest’s yacht in the Mediterranean.[195] Back in Britain, he was tasked with dealing with the Tonypandy Riot, in which coal miners in the Rhondda Valley violently protested against their working conditions.[196] The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops to help police quell the rioting. Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff, but blocked their deployment; he was concerned that the use of troops could lead to bloodshed. Instead he sent 270 London police—who were not equipped with firearms—to assist their Welsh counterparts.[197] As the riots continued, he offered the protesters an interview with the government’s chief industrial arbitrator, which they accepted.[198] Privately, Churchill regarded both the mine owners and striking miners as being “very unreasonable”.[194]The Times and other media outlets accused him of being too soft on the rioters;[199] conversely, many in the Labour Party, which was linked to the trade unions, regarded him as having been too heavy-handed.[200]

                                                                                          Asquith called a general election for December 1910, in which the Liberals were re-elected and Churchill again secured his Dundee seat.[201] In January 1911, Churchill became involved with the Siege of Sidney Street; three Latvian burglars had killed several police officers and hidden in a house in London’s East End, which was surrounded by police.[202] Churchill joined the police although did not direct their operation.[203] After the house caught on fire, he told the fire brigade not to proceed into the house because of the threat that the armed Latvians posed to them. After the event, two of the burglars were found dead.[203] Although he faced criticism for his decision, he stated that he “thought it better to let the house burn down rather than spend good British lives in rescuing those ferocious rascals.”[204]

                                                                                          In March 1911, he introduced the second reading of the Coal Mines Bill to parliament, which—when implemented into law—introduced stricter safety standards to coal mines.[205] He also formulated the Shops Bill to improve the working conditions of shop workers; it faced opposition from shop owners and only passed into law in a much emasculated form.[206] To maintain pressure on this issue, he became president of the Early Closing Association and remained in that position until the early 1940s.[207] In April, Lloyd George introduced the first health and unemployment insurance legislation, the National Insurance Act 1911; Churchill had been instrumental in drafting it.[206] In May, his wife gave birth to their second child, Randolph, named after Churchill’s father.[208] In 1911, he was tasked with dealing with escalating civil strife, sending troops into Liverpool to quell protesting dockers and rallying against a national railway strike.[209] As the Agadir Crisis emerged, which threatened the outbreak of war between Germany and France, Churchill suggested that—should negotiations fail—the UK should form an alliance with France and Russia and safeguard the independence of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark in the face of possible German expansionism.[210] The Agadir Crisis had a dramatic effect on Churchill and his views about the need for naval expansion.[211]

                                                                                          First Lord of the Admiralty: 1911–1915

                                                                                          As First Lord of the Admiralty, Churchill’s London residency became Admiralty House (music room pictured).

                                                                                          In October 1911, Asquith appointed Churchill First Lord of the Admiralty.[212] He settled into his official London residence at Admiralty House,[213] and established his new office aboard the admiralty yacht, the Enchantress.[214] Over the next two and a half years he focused on naval preparation, visiting naval stations and dockyards, seeking to improve naval morale, and scrutinising German naval developments.[215] After the German government passed the German Navy Law to increase warship production, Churchill vowed that Britain would do the same and that for every new battleship built by the Germans, Britain would build two.[216] Believing that Germany had been taken over by an oligarchy of “the landlord ascendancy”, he expressed the hope that war with the country would be averted if Germany’s “democratic forces” could re-assert their control over its government.[217] To discourage conflict, he invited the Germans to engage in a mutual de-escalation of the two country’s naval building projects, but his offer was rebuffed.[218]

                                                                                          As part of his naval reforms, he pushed for higher pay and greater recreational facilities for naval staff,[219] an increase in the building of submarines,[220] and a renewed focus on the Royal Naval Air Service, encouraging them to experiment with how aircraft could be used for offensive military purposes.[221] He coined the term “seaplane” and ordered 100 to be constructed for the Navy.[222] In 1913 he began taking flying lessons at Eastchurch air station, although close friends urged him to stop given the dangers involved.[223] Some Liberals objected to his levels of naval expenditure; in December 1913 he threatened to resign if his proposal for four new battleships in 1914–15 was rejected.[224] In June 1914, he convinced the House of Commons to authorise the government purchase of a 51 percent share in the profits of oil produced by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, to secure continued oil access for the Royal Navy.[225]
                                                                                          As a supporter of eugenics, he participated in the drafting of the Mental Deficiency Act 1913; however, the Act, in the form eventually passed, rejected his preferred method of sterilisation of the feeble-minded in favour of their confinement in institutions.[226]

                                                                                          I admit that the perfectly genuine apprehensions of the majority of the people of North-East Ulster constitute the most serious obstacle to a thoroughly satisfactory settlement … But whatever Ulster’s rights may be, she cannot stand in the way of the whole of the rest of Ireland.

                                                                                          —Winston Churchill, introducing the second reading of the Home Rule Bill, April 1912[227]

                                                                                          Taking political centre stage in this period was the vexed issue of how the British government should respond to the Irish home rule movement.[228] In 1912, Asquith’s government had put forward the Home Rule Bill, which if passed into law would grant home rule to Ireland. Churchill supported the bill and urged Ulster Unionists—a largely Protestant community who desired continued political unity with Britain—to accept it.[229] He opposed partition of Ireland, and in 1913 suggested that Ulster have some autonomy from an independent Irish government.[230] Many Ulster Unionists rejected any option that left them under the jurisdiction of a Dublin-based government and the Ulster Volunteers threatened an uprising to establish an independent Protestant state in Ulster.[231] Churchill was the Cabinet minister tasked with giving an ultimatum to those threatening violence, doing so in a Bradford speech in March 1914.[232] Following a Cabinet decision, he boosted the naval presence in Ireland to deal with any Unionist uprising; Conservatives accused him of trying to initiate an “Ulster Pogrom”.[233] Seeking further compromise to calm the Ulster Volunteers, Churchill suggested that Ireland remain part of a federal United Kingdom; this in turn angered Liberals and Irish nationalists.[234]

                                                                                          First World War

                                                                                          I cannot feel that we in this island [i.e. Britain] are in any serious degree responsible for the wave of madness which has swept the mind of Christendom. No one can measure the consequences. I wondered whether those stupid Kings and Emperors could not assemble together and revivify kingship by saving the nations from hell but we all drift on in a kind of dull cataleptic trance. As if it was somebody else’s operations.

                                                                                          —Winston Churchill to his wife, July 1914[235]

                                                                                          Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in June 1914 there was growing talk of war in Europe.[236] Churchill began readying the navy for conflict,[237] convinced that if Germany attacked France then Britain would inevitably join the war.[238] Although there was strong opposition within the Liberal Party to involvement in the conflict,[238] the British Cabinet agreed that a German invasion of Belgium would be a cause for war. When this happened, Britain declared war.[239] Churchill was tasked with overseeing the country’s naval warfare effort.[240] In two weeks, the navy transported 120,000 British troops across the English Channel to France.[240] In August, he oversaw a naval blockade of German North Sea ports to prevent them from transporting food by sea;[241] he also sent submarines to the Baltic Sea to assist the Russian Navy against German warships.[241] Also in August, he sent the Marine Brigade to Ostend to force the Germans to reallocate some of their troops away from their main southward thrust.[242]

                                                                                          In September, Churchill took over full responsibility for the aerial defence of Britain,[242] and made several visits to France to oversee the war effort.[243] While in Britain, he spoke at all-party recruiting rallies in London and Liverpool,[244] and his wife gave birth to their third child, Sarah.[245] In October he visited Antwerp to observe Belgian defences against the besieging Germans; he promised Belgian Prime Minister Charles de Broqueville that Britain would provide reinforcements for the city.[246] The German assault continued, and shortly after Churchill left the city he agreed to a British retreat, allowing the Germans to take Antwerp; many in the press criticised Churchill for this.[247] Churchill maintained that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp on 3 October) and that this time had enabled the Allies to secure Calais and Dunkirk.[248]

                                                                                          Lavery’s portrait of Churchill wearing an Adrian helmet presented by General Fayolle.

                                                                                          In November, Asquith called a War Council, consisting of himself, Lloyd George, Edward Grey, Kitchener, and Churchill.[249] Churchill proposed a plan to seize the island of Borkum and use it as a post from which to attack Germany’s northern coastline, believing that this strategy should shorten the war.[250][verification needed] Churchill also encouraged the development of the tank, which he believed would be useful in overcoming the problems of trench warfare, and financed its creation with admiralty funds.[251] To relieve Turkish pressure on the Russians in the Caucasus, Churchill was part of a plan to distract the Turkish Army by attacking in the Dardanelles, with the hope that if successful the British could seize Constantinople.[252] In March, a fleet of 13 battleships attacked in the Dardanelles but faced severe problems from submerged mines; in April, the 29th Division began its assault at Gallipoli.[253] Many MPs, particularly Conservatives, blamed Churchill for the failure of these campaigns.[254] Amid growing Conservative pressure, in May, Asquith agreed to form an all-party coalition government; the Conservatives’ one condition of entry was that Churchill be demoted from his position at the Admiralty.[255][256] Churchill plead his case with both Asquith and Conservative leader Bonar Law, but ultimately accepted his demotion to the position of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.[257]

                                                                                          On the Western Front: 1915–1916

                                                                                          Winston Churchill commanding the 6th Battalion, the Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1916. Archibald Sinclair sits to the left.

                                                                                          For several months Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However, on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, realising that he would have no place in the smaller War Council being formed by Asquith in response to Cabinet demand, and feeling his energies were not being used.[258]

                                                                                          Although remaining a member of parliament, Churchill returned to the British Army, attempting to obtain an appointment as brigade commander, but settling for command of a battalion. After some time gaining front-line experience as a Major with the 2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards, he was appointed temporary Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers (part of the 9th (Scottish) Division), on 1 January 1916.[259][260]

                                                                                          Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. During his period of command, his battalion was stationed at Ploegsteert but did not take part in any set battle. Although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many Western Front actions, he exposed himself to danger by making excursions to the front line and personally made 36 forays into no man’s land.[260][261]

                                                                                          Return to Parliament

                                                                                          In March 1916, Churchill returned to the UK after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons.[262] Future prime minister David Lloyd George acidly commented: “You will one day discover that the state of mind revealed in (your) letter is the reason why you do not win trust even where you command admiration. In every line of it, national interests are completely overshadowed by your personal concern.”[263]

                                                                                          Churchill meets female workers at Georgetown’s filling works near Glasgow, October 1918

                                                                                          In July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. He was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, a principle that allowed the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that “there would be no great European war for the next five or ten years”.[264] (Later as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1928, Churchill would persuade the Cabinet to make the rule self-perpetuating.)[265] A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be “strangled in its cradle”.[266]

                                                                                          He was instrumental in having para-military forces (Black and Tans and Auxiliaries) intervene in the Irish War of Independence.[267] He became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Churchill was involved in the lengthy negotiations of the treaty and, to protect British maritime interests, he engineered part of the Irish Free State agreement to include three Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy.[268] In 1938, however, under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement, the bases were returned to Ireland.[citation needed]

                                                                                          In 1919, Churchill sanctioned the use of tear gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq.[269] Though the British did consider the use of non-lethal poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, it was not used, as conventional bombing was considered more effective.[269]

                                                                                          Official entry into Lille. The Minister of Munitions, Winston Churchill, watching the march past of the 47th (1/2nd London) Division in the Grande Place, Lille, 28 October 1918. In front of him is the Chief of Staff of the 47th Division, Lieutenant Colonel Bernard Montgomery.

                                                                                          In 1919, Britain and the United States signed a treaty of alliance with France which the United States Senate refused to ratify, thus making the proposed Anglo-Franco-American alliance stillborn.[270] In July 1921, Churchill argued at the Imperial conference of Dominion prime ministers that despite the rejection by the United States Senate of the alliance with France that Britain should still sign a military alliance with France to guarantee post-war security.[270] Churchill’s ideas of an Anglo-French alliance was rejected at the conference as British public opinion and even more so Dominion public opinion was against the idea of the “continental commitment”.[271]

                                                                                          In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government, following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming November 1922 general election. Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendectomy. This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division which continued to beset the Liberal Party. He came fourth in the poll for Dundee, losing to prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee “without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix”.[272]

                                                                                          On 4 May 1923, Churchill spoke in favour of the French occupation of the Ruhr, which was extremely unpopular in Britain saying: “We must not allow any particular phrase of French policy to estrange us from the great French nation. We must not turn our backs on our friends from the past”.[271]

                                                                                          In 1923, Churchill acted as a paid consultant for Burmah Oil (now BP plc) to lobby the British government to allow Burmah exclusive rights to Persian (Iranian) oil resources; these rights were ultimately granted.[263] He stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester West.[273]

                                                                                          Constitutionalist

                                                                                          In January 1924, the first Labour Government had taken office amid fears of threats to the Constitution. Churchill was noted at the time for being particularly hostile to socialism. He believed that the Labour Party, as a socialist party, did not fully support the existing British Constitution. In March 1924, aged 49, he sought election at the Westminster Abbey by-election, 1924. He had originally sought the backing of the local Unionist association, which happened to be called the Westminster Abbey Constitutional Association, so he adopted the term ‘Constitutionalist’ to describe himself during the by-election campaign.[274] Despite support from Beaverbrook and Rothermere newspapers, he lost by 43 votes.

                                                                                          After the by-election Churchill continued to use the term and talked about setting up a Constitutionalist Party, though any formal plans that Churchill may have had were shelved with the calling of another general election. Churchill and 11 others decided to use the label Constitutionalist rather than Liberal or Unionist.[275][276] He was returned at Epping against a Liberal and with the support of the Unionists. After the election the seven Constitutionalist candidates who were elected, including Churchill, did not act or vote as a group.

                                                                                          Rejoining the Conservative Party

                                                                                          Chancellor of the Exchequer: 1924–1929

                                                                                          Churchill accepted the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin’s Unionist government, and formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that “anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat” (in British English to “rat” means to betray).[272][277]

                                                                                          As Chancellor of the Exchequer Churchill oversaw Britain’s disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners’ strike that led to the General Strike of 1926.[278] His decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, Sir Otto Niemeyer, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, and the board of the Bank of England. This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925 (£1=$4.86) would lead to a global depression. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as ‘sound economics’, although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.[279]

                                                                                          Portrait of Churchill by Ambrose McEvoy (1878–1927)

                                                                                          Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life; in discussions at the time with former Chancellor Reginald McKenna, Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting ‘dear money’ policy were economically bad. In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political—a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed.[280] In his speech on the Bill he said “I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality.”[281]

                                                                                          The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry, already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil. As basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to ten percent in costs to the industry. In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry report generally favoured the miners’ position rather than that of the mine owners.[282]

                                                                                          With Churchill’s support Baldwin proposed a subsidy to the coal industry, while a Royal Commission under Herbert Samuel prepared a further report. The Samuel Commission solved nothing, and the miners’ dispute led to the General Strike of 1926. Churchill edited the Government’s newspaper, the British Gazette,[283] and was one of the more hawkish members of the Cabinet, recommending that the route of food convoys from the docks into London should be guarded by tanks, armoured cars and hidden machine guns. This was rejected by the Cabinet.[284] Exaggerated accounts of Churchill’s belligerency during the strike soon began to circulate. Immediately afterward, the New Statesman claimed that Churchill had been leader of a “war party” in the Cabinet and had wished to use military force against the strikers. He consulted the Attorney-General Sir Douglas Hogg, who advised that although he had a good case for criminal libel, it would be inadvisable to have confidential Cabinet discussions aired in open court. Churchill agreed to let the matter drop.[285]

                                                                                          Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Churchill’s budget measures. These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters, which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets,[286] and as paring the Armed Forces, and especially the Royal Navy, too heavily.[287]

                                                                                          Political isolation

                                                                                          Churchill wrote a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in the mid-1930s

                                                                                          The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 general election. Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs. Over the next two years, he became estranged from Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule, by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people whose character was seen as dubious. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was at the low-point in his career, in a period known as “the wilderness years”.[288]

                                                                                          He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, works including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after the Second World War),[288]Great Contemporaries and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches. He was one of the best paid writers of his time.[288] His political views, set forth in his 1930 Romanes Lecture and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays “Thoughts and Adventures”) involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic ‘sub parliament’.[289]

                                                                                          Indian independence

                                                                                          Churchill opposed Gandhi’s peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1920s and ’30s, arguing that the Round Table Conference “was a frightful prospect”.[290] Churchill brooked no moderation. “The truth is”, he declared in 1930, “that Gandhi-ism and everything it stands for will have to be grappled with and crushed.”[291] In response to Gandhi’s movement, Churchill proclaimed in 1920 that Gandhi should be bound hand and foot and crushed with an elephant ridden by the viceroy.[292][293][294] Later reports indicate that Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on a hunger strike.[295]

                                                                                          The British Indian Empire in 1909

                                                                                          In speeches and press articles in this period, he forecast widespread unemployment in Britain and civil strife in India should independence be granted.[296] The Viceroy, Lord Irwin, who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government, engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government’s policy that India should be granted Dominion status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference.[297]

                                                                                          At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association, specially convened so that Churchill could explain his position, he said “It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace  … to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor.”[298][299] He called the Indian National Congress leaders “Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism”.[300]

                                                                                          The Quit India Movement, launched by Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during the Second World War, demanded an end to British rule of India.

                                                                                          Two incidents damaged Churchill’s reputation within the Conservative Party in this period. Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The first was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. In a safe Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by Ernest Petter, an independent Conservative. Petter was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Although arranged before the by-election was set,[301] Churchill’s speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the press barons’ campaign against Baldwin. Baldwin’s position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won, and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.[302]

                                                                                          The second issue was a claim by Churchill that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill, and in doing so had breached parliamentary privilege. He had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which, after investigations in which Churchill gave evidence, reported to the House that there had been no breach.[303] The report was debated on 13 June 1934. Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division.[304]

                                                                                          Churchill permanently broke with Baldwin over Indian independence and never again held any office while Baldwin was prime minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life (1930).[305]

                                                                                          German and Italian rearmament and conflicts in Manchuria and Abyssinia

                                                                                          In the 1920s, Churchill supported the idea of a “reconciliation” between Germany and France with Britain serving as the “honest broker” for the reconciliation”.[271] Beginning in 1931, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany’s rearmament.[306]

                                                                                          In 1931, Churchill said: “It is not in the immediate interest of European peace that the French Army should be seriously weakened. It is not in British interests to antagonize France”.[271] He later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany.[307] However Lord Lloyd was the first to so agitate.[308]

                                                                                          In 1932, Churchill accepted the presidency of the newly founded New Commonwealth Society, a peace organisation which he described in 1937 as “one of the few peace societies that advocates the use of force, if possible overwhelming force, to support public international law”.[309]

                                                                                          Churchill’s initial attitude towards the fascist dictators was ambiguous. After the First World War defeat of Germany, a new danger occupied conservatives’ political consciousness—the spread of communism. A newspaper article penned by Churchill and published on 4 February 1920, had warned that “civilisation” was threatened by the Bolsheviks, a movement which he linked through historical precedence to Jewish conspiracy.[310] In his 1920 newspaper article entitled “Zionism versus Bolshevism”, Churchill wrote in part:

                                                                                          This movement among the Jews is not new  … this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilisation and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing.

                                                                                          However, in this article, Churchill praised the Jews who had integrated into the national life of the countries in which they lived “while adhering faithfully to their own religion”, contrasting them with those who had “forsaken the faith of their forefathers” and come to play an influential role in the rise of the Bolshevik movement.[311] Most Churchill scholars cite his great admiration for the Jews. Due in part to his childhood exposure to his father’s many Jewish friends and associates, Churchill was a lifelong, fervent opponent of antisemitism and a supporter of the Zionist movement.[312]

                                                                                          In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria: “I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state  … On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China, four or five provinces of which are being tortured under communist rule.”[313] In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a communist front, and Franco’s army as the “Anti-red movement.”[314] He supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued until 1937 to praise Mussolini.[315] He regarded Mussolini’s regime as a bulwark against the perceived threat of communist revolution, going as far (in 1933) as to call Mussolini the “Roman genius  … the greatest lawgiver among men.” However, he stressed that the UK must stick with its tradition of Parliamentary democracy, not adopt fascism.[316]

                                                                                          Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Churchill said, “I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism.”[317] In a 1935 essay, “Hitler and his Choice”, which was republished in his 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred and cruelty, might yet “go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong to the forefront of the European family circle.”[318] His first major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence; his second, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These three topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of The Focus, which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking “the defence of freedom and peace.”[319]The Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936.[citation needed]

                                                                                          Germany and rearmament: 1936

                                                                                          Churchill, holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, returned to a divided Britain. The Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.[320] Churchill’s speech on 9 March was measured, and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive. But within weeks Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip.[321]A. J. P. Taylor later called this “an appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul.”[322] At the time insiders were less worried: Duff Cooper was opposed to Churchill’s appointment, while General Ellison wrote that he had “only one comment, and that is ‘Thank God we are preserved from Winston Churchill.[323]

                                                                                          On 22 May 1936, Churchill was present at a meeting of Old Guard Conservatives (the group, not all of them present on that occasion, included Austen Chamberlain, Geoffrey Lloyd, Leopold Amery, and Robert Horne) at Lord Winterton’s house at Shillinglee Park, to push for greater rearmament. This meeting prompted Baldwin to comment that it was “the time of year when midges came out of dirty ditches”. Neville Chamberlain was also taking a growing interest in foreign affairs, and in June, as part of a power-bid at the expense of the young and pro-League of Nations Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, he demanded an end to sanctions against Italy (“the very midsummer of madness”).[324][325]

                                                                                          In June 1936, Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives to see Baldwin, Inskip and Halifax. There had been demands for a Secret Session of the House and the senior ministers agreed to meet the deputation rather than listen to a potential four-hour speech by Churchill.[324][325] He had tried to have delegates from the other two parties and later wrote, “If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action.”[326]Robert Rhodes James writes that this is “not quite the impression” given by the documentary record of the meetings of 28–29 July, and another meeting in November. Churchill’s figures for the size of the Luftwaffe, leaked to him by Ralph Wigram at the Foreign Office, were less accurate than those of the Air Ministry and he believed that the Germans were preparing to unleash thermite bombs “the size of an orange” on London. Ministers stressed that Hitler’s intentions were unclear, and the importance of maximising Britain’s long-term economic strength through exports, whereas Churchill wanted 25–30 percent of British industry to be brought under state control for purposes of rearmament. Baldwin argued that the important thing had been to win the election to get “a perfectly free hand” for rearmament. The meeting ended with Baldwin agreeing with Churchill that rearmament was vital to deter Germany.[324][325]

                                                                                          On 12 November, Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate, after giving some specific instances of Germany’s war preparedness, he said “The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind. So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency. And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat.”[327] Robert Rhodes James called this one of Churchill’s most brilliant speeches during this period, Baldwin’s reply sounding weak and disturbing the House. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[328]

                                                                                          Abdication crisis

                                                                                          In June 1936, Walter Monckton told Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson’s existing marriage as a ‘safeguard’.[329]

                                                                                          In November, he declined Lord Salisbury’s invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Liberal Party leader Archibald Sinclair met with Baldwin, were told officially of the King’s intention, and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry’s advice. Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Churchill’s reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.[330]

                                                                                          The Abdication crisis became public, coming to a head in the first two weeks of December 1936. At this time, Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks, he made a declaration ‘on the spur of the moment’ asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet.[331] Later that night Churchill saw the draft of the King’s proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King’s solicitor about it. On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision.[332] On 7 December, he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members, he left.[333]

                                                                                          Churchill’s reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some, such as Alistair Cooke, saw him as trying to build a King’s Party.[334] Others like Harold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Churchill’s support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[335] Churchill himself later wrote “I was myself so smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was at last ended.”[336] Historians are divided about Churchill’s motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A. J. P. Taylor see it as being an attempt to ‘overthrow the government of feeble men’.[337] Others, such as R. R. James, view Churchill’s motives as honourable and disinterested, in that he felt deeply for the King.[338]

                                                                                          Return from exile

                                                                                          Churchill later sought to portray himself as an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While he had a small following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s, he was given privileged information by some elements within the government, particularly by disaffected civil servants in the War Ministry and Foreign Office. The “Churchill group” in the latter half of the decade consisted of only himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other factions within the Conservative Party that wanted faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy;[339][340] one meeting of anti-Chamberlain forces decided that Churchill would make a good Minister of Supply.[341]

                                                                                          Even during the time Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. From 1932, Churchill’s neighbour, Major Desmond Morton, with Ramsay MacDonald’s approval, gave Churchill information on German air power.[342] From 1930 onward Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations. Lord Swinton, as Secretary of State for Air, and with Baldwin’s approval, in 1934 gave Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information.

                                                                                          Swinton did so, knowing Churchill would remain a critic of the government, but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay.[343] Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement of Adolf Hitler[344] and in private letters to Lloyd George (13 August) and Lord Moyne (11 September) just before the Munich Agreement, he wrote that the government was faced with a choice between “war and shame” and that having chosen shame would later get war on less favourable terms.[345][346][347]

                                                                                          Return to the Admiralty

                                                                                          On 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany following the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, the same position he had held during the first part of the First World War. As such he was a member of Chamberlain’s small War Cabinet.[348][349][350]

                                                                                          In this position, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called “Phoney War”, when the only noticeable action was at sea and the USSR’s attack on Finland. Churchill planned to penetrate the Baltic with a naval force. This was soon changed to a plan involving the mining of Norwegian waters to stop iron ore shipments from Narvik and provoke Germany into attacking Norway, where it could be defeated by the Royal Navy.[351] However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the start of the mining plan, Operation Wilfred, was delayed until 8 April 1940, a day before the successful German invasion of Norway.[352]

                                                                                          First term as prime minister: 1940–1945

                                                                                          “We shall never surrender”

                                                                                          Churchill wears a helmet during an air raid warning in the Battle of Britain in 1940

                                                                                          On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain’s prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of prime minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons. Although a prime minister does not traditionally advise the King on a prime minister’s own successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Churchill, and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as constitutional monarch, George VI asked Churchill to be prime minister. Churchill’s first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.[353]

                                                                                          Churchill was still unpopular with many Conservatives and the Establishment,[340][354] who opposed his replacing Chamberlain; the former prime minister remained party leader until dying in November.[355] Churchill probably could not have won a majority in any of the political parties in the House of Commons, and the House of Lords was completely silent when it learned of his appointment.[340]Ralph Ingersoll reported in late 1940 that, “Everywhere I went in London people admired [Churchill’s] energy, his courage, his singleness of purpose. People said they didn’t know what Britain would do without him. He was obviously respected. But no one felt he would be Prime Minister after the war. He was simply the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain’s enemies.”[356]

                                                                                          Churchill takes aim with a Sten submachine gun in June 1941. The man in the pin-striped suit and fedora to the right is his bodyguard, Walter H. Thompson.

                                                                                          An element of British public and political sentiment favoured a negotiated peace with Germany, among them Halifax as Foreign Secretary. Over three days in May (26–28 May 1940), there were repeated discussions within the War Cabinet of whether the UK should associate itself with French approaches to Mussolini to use his good offices with Hitler to seek a negotiated peace: they terminated in refusal to do so. Various interpretations are possible of this episode, and of Churchill’s argument that “it was idle to think that, if we tried to make peace now, we should get better terms than if we fought it out”, but throughout Churchill seems to have opposed any immediate peace negotiations.[357] Although at times personally pessimistic about Britain’s chances for victory (Churchill told Hastings Ismay on 12 June 1940 that “[y]ou and I will be dead in three months’ time”)[355] his use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.[358]

                                                                                          Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Churchill stated in his “finest hour” speech to the House of Commons on 18 June, “I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.”[359] By refusing an armistice with Germany, Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942–45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of the Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe.[citation needed]

                                                                                          In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence, making him the most powerful wartime prime minister in British history.[340] He immediately put his friend and confidant, industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production and made his friend Frederick Lindemann the government’s scientific advisor. It has been argued that it was Beaverbrook’s business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering, which eventually made the difference in the war.[360]

                                                                                          Churchill walks through the ruins of Coventry Cathedral with Alfred Robert Grindlay, 1941

                                                                                          Churchill’s speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. His first as prime minister was the famous “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat” speech. One historian has called its effect on Parliament “electrifying”. The House of Commons that had ignored him during the 1930s “was now listening, and cheering”.[341] Churchill followed that closely with two other equally famous speeches, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the words:

                                                                                          .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

                                                                                          … we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.[361]

                                                                                          The other:

                                                                                          Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, ‘This was their finest hour’.[362]

                                                                                          At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”, which engendered the enduring nickname The Few for the RAF fighter pilots who won it.[363] He first spoke these famous words upon his exit from No. 11 Group’s underground bunker at RAF Uxbridge, now known as the Battle of Britain Bunker on 16 August 1940. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor’s Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Churchill stated:

                                                                                          This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.[364]

                                                                                          Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead. “Rhetorical power”, wrote Churchill, “is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated.” Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, Australian Prime Minister, said of Churchill during the Second World War: “His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way.”[365] Another associate wrote: “He is  … the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas  … And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery.”[366]

                                                                                          Mental and physical health

                                                                                          Winston Churchill giving his famous ‘V’ sign, May 1943

                                                                                          The war energised Churchill, who was 65 years old when he became Prime Minister. Stating that he was the only top leader from World War I who still had an important political job, John Gunther wrote that Churchill “looks ten years younger than he is”. H. R. Knickerbocker wrote that “The responsibilities which are his now must be greater than those carried by any other human being on earth. One would think such a weight would have a crushing effect upon him. Not at all. The last time I saw him, while the Battle of Britain was still raging, he looked twenty years younger than before the war began  … His uplifted spirit is transmitted to the people”.[367][354] Churchill’s physical health became more fragile during the war; he suffered a mild heart attack in December 1941 at the White House, and in December 1943 contracted pneumonia. Despite this, Churchill travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden.[368]

                                                                                          Since the appearance in 1966 of Lord Moran’s memoir of his years as Churchill’s doctor, with its claim that “Black Dog” was the name Churchill gave to “the prolonged fits of depression from which he suffered”,[369] many authors have suggested that throughout his life Churchill was a victim of, or at risk from, clinical depression. Formulated in this way, Churchill’s mental health history contains unmistakable echoes of the seminal interpretation of Lord Moran’s Black Dog revelations made by Dr Anthony Storr.[370]

                                                                                          In drawing so heavily on Moran for what he took to be the latter’s totally reliable, first-hand clinical evidence of Churchill’s lifelong struggle with “prolonged and recurrent depression” and its associated “despair”, Storr produced a seemingly authoritative and persuasive diagnostic essay that, in the words of John Ramsden, “strongly influenced all later accounts.”[371]

                                                                                          Churchill in Québec City, Canada in 1943

                                                                                          However, Storr was not aware that Moran, as Moran’s biographer Professor Richard Lovell has shown and contrary to the impression created in Moran’s book, kept no diary, in the usual sense of the word, during his years as Churchill’s doctor. Nor was Storr aware that Moran’s book as published was a much rewritten account which mixed together Moran’s contemporaneous jottings with later material acquired from other sources.[372]

                                                                                          As Wilfred Attenborough demonstrated, the key Black Dog ‘diary’ entry for 14 August 1944 was an arbitrarily dated pastiche in which the explicit reference to Black Dog—the first of the few in the book (with an associated footnote definition of the term)—was taken, not from anything Churchill had said to Moran, but from much later claims made to Moran by Bracken in 1958.[373] Although seemingly unnoticed by Dr Storr and those he influenced, Moran later on in his book retracts his earlier suggestion, also derived from Brendan Bracken, that, towards the end of the Second World War, Churchill was succumbing to “the inborn melancholia of the Churchill blood”; also unnoticed by Storr et al., Moran, in his final chapter, states that Churchill, before the start of the First World War, “had managed to extirpate bouts of depression from his system”.[374]

                                                                                          Churchill visits the troops in Normandy, 1944

                                                                                          Despite the difficulties with Moran’s book, the many illustrations it provides of a Churchill understandably plunged into temporary low mood by military defeats and other severely adverse developments constitute a compelling portrait of a great man reacting to, but not significantly impeded by, worry and overstrain, a compelling portrait that is entirely consistent with the portraits of others who worked closely with Churchill.[375] Churchill did not receive medication for depression—the amphetamine that Moran prescribed for special occasions, especially for big speeches from the autumn of 1953 onwards, was to combat the effects of Churchill’s stroke of that year.[376]

                                                                                          Churchill himself seems, in a long life, to have written about Black Dog on one occasion only: the reference, a backward-looking one, occurs in a private handwritten letter to Clementine Churchill dated July 1911 which reports the successful treatment of a relative’s depression by a doctor in Germany.[377] His ministerial circumstances at that date, the very limited treatments available for serious depression pre-1911, the fact of the relative’s being “complete cured”, and, not least, the evident deep interest Churchill took in the fact of the complete cure, can be shown to point to Churchill’s pre-1911 Black Dog depression as having been a form of mild (i.e. non-psychotic) anxiety-depression,[378] as that term is defined by Professor Edward Shorter.[379]

                                                                                          Churchill’s crossing of the Rhine river in Germany, during Operation Plunder on 25 March 1945

                                                                                          Moran himself leaned strongly in the direction of his patient being “by nature very apprehensive”;[380] close associates of Churchill have disputed the idea that apprehension was a defining feature of Churchill’s temperament, although they readily concede that he was noticeably worried and anxious about some matters, especially in the buildup to important speeches in the House of Commons and elsewhere.[381] Churchill himself all but openly acknowledged in his book Painting as a Pastime that he was prey to the “worry and mental overstrain [experienced] by persons who, over prolonged periods, have to bear exceptional responsibilities and discharge duties upon a very large scale”.[382] The fact that he found a remedy in painting and bricklaying is a strong indicator that the condition as he defined it did not amount to ‘clinical depression’, certainly not as that term was understood during the lifetimes of himself and Lord Moran.[383]

                                                                                          According to Lord Moran, during the war years Churchill sought solace in his tumbler of whisky and soda and his cigar. Churchill was also a very emotional man, unafraid to shed tears when appropriate. During some of his broadcast speeches it was noticed that he was trying to hold back the tears. Nevertheless, although the fall of Tobruk was, by Churchill’s own account, “one of the heaviest blows” he received during the war,[384] there seem to have been no tears. Certainly, the next day Moran found him animated and vigorous.[385]Field Marshal Alanbrooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, who had been present when President Roosevelt broke the news of the tragedy to Churchill, focused afterward in his diary on the superbly well judged manner in which the President made his offer of immediate military assistance,[386] despite Alanbrooke’s being ever ready to highlight what he perceived to be Churchill’s contradictory motivations and flawed character during the war. For example, in his diary[387] entry for 10 September 1944:

                                                                                          … And the wonderful thing is that 3/4 of the population of the world imagine that Churchill is one of the Strategists of History, a second Marlborough, and the other 1/4 have no idea what a public menace he is and has been throughout this war! It is far better that the world should never know, and never suspect the feet of clay of this otherwise superhuman being. Without him England was lost for a certainty, with him England has been on the verge of disaster time and again  … Never have I admired and despised a man simultaneously to the same extent. Never have such opposite extremes been combined in the same human being.

                                                                                          Relations with the United States

                                                                                          Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943.

                                                                                          Winston Churchill fires an American M1 carbine during a visit to the US 2nd Armored Division on Salisbury Plain, 23 March 1944.

                                                                                          Churchill’s good relations with United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt—between 1939 and 1945 they exchanged an estimated 1700 letters and telegrams and met 11 times; Churchill estimated that they had 120 days of close personal contact[388]—helped secure vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes.[389]

                                                                                          It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-Lease was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first strategy, the Declaration by United Nations and other war policies.
                                                                                          After Pearl Harbor was attacked, Churchill’s first thought in anticipation of US help was, “We have won the war!”[390]

                                                                                          On 26 December 1941, Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, “What kind of people do they think we are?”[391] Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton’s Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world’s current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the “British Bulldog.”[392]

                                                                                          Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-Second World War European and Asian boundaries.[citation needed] These were discussed as early as 1943. At the Second Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and, together with Roosevelt, signed a less-harsh version of the original Morgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender “into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character.”[393] Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by President Harry S. Truman, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at Potsdam. Churchill’s strong relationship with Harry Truman was of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, “the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most.”[394]

                                                                                          Relations with the Soviet Union

                                                                                          Huge portraits of Churchill and Stalin, Brisbane, Australia, 31 October 1941

                                                                                          When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-communist, famously stated “If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons”, regarding his policy towards Stalin.[395] Soon, British supplies and tanks were being sent to help the Soviet Union.[396]

                                                                                          The Casablanca Conference, a meeting of Allied powers held in Casablanca, Morocco, on 14 January through 23 January 1943, produced what was to be known as the “Casablanca Declaration”. In attendance were Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Charles de Gaulle. Joseph Stalin had bowed out, citing the need for his presence in the Soviet Union to attend to the Stalingrad crisis. It was in Casablanca that the Allies made a unified commitment to continue the war through to the “unconditional surrender” of the Axis powers. In private, however, Churchill did not fully subscribe to the doctrine of “unconditional surrender”, and was taken by surprise when Franklin Roosevelt announced this to the world as Allied consensus.[397][398]

                                                                                          The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was prime minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin’s wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.[399][400]

                                                                                          Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference, February 1945

                                                                                          As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, “Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble  … A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions.”[401][402] However, the resulting expulsions of Germans from Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary and Romania were carried out in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report[403] by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, over 2.1 million Germans dead or missing.[403] Churchill opposed the Soviet domination of Poland and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but was unable to prevent it at the conferences.[404]

                                                                                          During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what.[405] The most significant of these meetings was held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed.[406] Churchill told Stalin:

                                                                                          Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don’t let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty–fifty about Yugoslavia?[405]

                                                                                          Stalin agreed to this Percentages agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, five years after the account of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet Union denied that Stalin accepted the “imperialist proposal”.[406]

                                                                                          One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the Allies would return all Soviet citizens that found themselves in the Allied zone to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the Soviet prisoners of war liberated by the Allies, but was also extended to all Eastern European refugees.[407]Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn called the Operation Keelhaul “the last secret” of the Second World War.[408] The operation decided the fate of up to two million post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe.[409]

                                                                                          Role in Bengal famine

                                                                                          There has been debate over Churchill’s culpability in the deaths of millions of Indians during the Bengal famine of 1943. Some commentators point to the disruption of the traditional marketing system and maladministration at the provincial level as a cause, with Churchill saying that the famine was the Indians’ own fault for “breeding like rabbits”.[410][411][412][413][411][414][page needed]Adam Jones, editor of the Journal of Genocide Research, calls Churchill “a genuine genocidaire”, noting that the British leader called Indians a “foul race” in this period and said that the British air force chief should “send some of his surplus bombers to destroy them.”[415]

                                                                                          Arthur Herman, author of Churchill and Gandhi, contends, ‘The real cause was the fall of Burma to the Japanese, which cut off India’s main supply of rice imports when domestic sources fell short  … [though] it is true that Churchill opposed diverting food supplies and transports from other theatres to India to cover the shortfall: this was wartime.’[416]

                                                                                          In response to an urgent request by the Secretary of State for India (Leo Amery) and the Viceroy of India (Wavell), to release food stocks for India, Churchill responded with a telegram to Wavell asking, if food was so scarce, “why Gandhi hadn’t died yet”.[417][418] In July 1940, newly in office, he reportedly welcomed reports of the emerging conflict between the Muslim League and the Indian Congress, hoping “it would be bitter and bloody”.[291]

                                                                                          Dresden bombings controversy

                                                                                          The destruction of Dresden, February 1945

                                                                                          Between 13–15 February 1945, British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees.[419] There were unknown numbers of refugees in Dresden, so historians Matthias Neutzner, Götz Bergander and Frederick Taylor have used historical sources and deductive reasoning to estimate that the number of refugees in the city and surrounding suburbs was around 200,000 or less on the first night of the bombing. Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Churchill stated in a secret telegram:

                                                                                          It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed  … I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.[420]

                                                                                          On reflection, under pressure from the chiefs of staff, and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal (Chief of the Air Staff) and Sir Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of RAF Bomber Command), among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one.[421][422] This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated:

                                                                                          It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called ‘area-bombing’ of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies  … We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy’s war effort.[421][422]

                                                                                          Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to occur. German historian Jörg Friedrich claims that Churchill’s decision was a “war crime”,[423] and, writing in 2006, philosopher A. C. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF, presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime that undermines the Allies’ contention that they fought a just war.[424]

                                                                                          On the other hand, it has been asserted that Churchill’s involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. As historian and journalist Max Hastings wrote in an article subtitled “the Allied Bombing of Dresden”: “I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis. Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany’s military defeat.”

                                                                                          British historian Frederick Taylor points out that “All sides bombed each other’s cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That’s roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids.”[425]

                                                                                          End of the Second World War

                                                                                          Churchill waving the Victory sign to the crowd in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. Ernest Bevin stands to his right.

                                                                                          In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year. After being attacked on three fronts by the Allies, and in spite of Allied failures, such as Operation Market Garden, and German counter-attacks, including the Battle of the Bulge, Germany was eventually defeated. On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender. On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day.[426] On Victory in Europe Day, Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final ceasefire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at one minute past midnight that night.[427][428]

                                                                                          Afterward, Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: “This is your victory.” The people shouted: “No, it is yours”, and Churchill then conducted them in the singing of “Land of Hope and Glory”. In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months.[429] The Japanese surrendered on 15 August 1945. As Europe celebrated peace at the end of six years of war, Churchill was concerned with the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted.[clarification needed][430] He concluded the UK and the US must anticipate the Red Army ignoring previously agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe, and prepare to “impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire.”[430] According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.[430]

                                                                                          Syria crisis

                                                                                          Soon after VE day there came a dispute with Britain over French mandates Syria and Lebanon, known as the Levant, which quickly developed into a major diplomatic incident.[431] In May, de Gaulle sent more French troops to re-establish their presence, provoking an outbreak of nationalism.[431] On 20 May, French troops opened fire on demonstrators in Damascus with artillery and dropped bombs from the air.[432] Finally, on 31 May, with the death toll exceeding a thousand Syrians, Churchill decided to act and sent de Gaulle an ultimatum saying, “In order to avoid a collision between British and French forces, we request you immediately to order French troops to cease fire and withdraw to their barracks”.[433] This was ignored by both de Gaulle and the French forces, and thus Churchill ordered British troops and armoured cars under General Bernard Paget to invade Syria from nearby Transjordan. The invasion went ahead, and the British swiftly moved in cutting the French General Fernand Oliva-Roget’s telephone line with his base at Beirut. Eventually, heavily outnumbered, Oliva-Roget ordered his men back to their bases near the coast, and they were escorted by the British. A furious row then broke out between Britain and France.[432]

                                                                                          Churchill’s relationship with de Gaulle was at this time rock bottom in spite of his efforts to preserve French interests at Yalta and a visit to Paris the previous year. In January he told a colleague that he believed that de Gaulle was “a great danger to peace and for Great Britain. After five years of experience, I am convinced that he is the worst enemy of France in her troubles … he is one of the greatest dangers to European peace … I am sure that in the long run no understanding will be reached with General de Gaulle”.[433] In France, there were accusations that Britain had armed the demonstrators, and de Gaulle raged against ‘Churchill’s ultimatum’, saying that “the whole thing stank of oil”.[431]

                                                                                          In opposition: 1945–1951

                                                                                          Caretaker government and 1945 election

                                                                                          Churchill at Potsdam Conference (July 1945)

                                                                                          With a general election looming (there had been none for almost a decade), and with the Labour Ministers refusing to continue the wartime coalition, Churchill resigned as Prime Minister on 23 May 1945. Later that day, he accepted the King’s invitation to form a new government, known officially as the National Government, like the Conservative-dominated coalition of the 1930s, but in practice known as the Churchill caretaker ministry. The government contained Conservatives, National Liberals and a few non-party figures such as Sir John Anderson and Lord Woolton, but not Labour or Archibald Sinclair’s Official Liberals. Although Churchill continued to carry out the functions of Prime Minister, including exchanging messages with the US administration about the upcoming Potsdam Conference, he was not formally reappointed until 28 May.[434]

                                                                                          Although polling day was 5 July, the results of the 1945 election did not become known until 26 July, owing to the need to collect the votes of those serving overseas. Clementine, who together with his daughter Mary had been at the count at Churchill’s constituency in Essex (although unopposed by the major parties, Churchill had been returned with a much-reduced majority against an independent candidate), returned to meet her husband for lunch. To her suggestion that election defeat might be “a blessing in disguise” he retorted that “at the moment it seems very effectively disguised”. That afternoon Churchill’s doctor Lord Moran (so he later recorded in his book The Struggle for Survival) commiserated with him on the “ingratitude” of the British public, to which Churchill replied “I wouldn’t call it that. They have had a very hard time.” Having lost the election, despite enjoying much support amongst the British population, he resigned as Prime Minister that evening, this time handing over to a Labour Government.[435][436] Many reasons for his defeat have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.[437] Although the Conservative Party was unpopular, many electors appear to have wanted Churchill to continue as Prime Minister whatever the outcome, or to have wrongly believed that this would be possible.[438]

                                                                                          On the morning of 27 July, Churchill held a farewell Cabinet. On the way out of the Cabinet Room he told Eden “Thirty years of my life have been passed in this room. I shall never sit in it again. You will, but I shall not.”[439] However, contrary to expectations, Churchill did not hand over the Conservative leadership to Anthony Eden, who became his deputy but was disinclined to challenge his leadership. It would be another decade before Churchill finally did hand over the reins.[440]

                                                                                          Opposition leader

                                                                                          Churchill with American General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery at a meeting of NATO in October 1951, shortly before Churchill was to become prime minister for a second time

                                                                                          For six years Churchill was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years he continued to influence world affairs. During his 1946 trip[441] to the United States, Churchill famously lost a lot of money in a poker game with Harry Truman and his advisors.[442]

                                                                                          During this trip he gave his Iron Curtain speech about the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc. Speaking on 5 March 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he declared:

                                                                                          From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.[443]

                                                                                          Churchill’s doctor Lord Moran later (in his book The Struggle for Survival) recalled Churchill suggesting in 1946—the year before he put the idea (unsuccessfully) in a memo to President Truman—that the United States make a pre-emptive atomic bomb attack on Moscow while the Soviet Union did not yet possess nuclear weapons.[444][445]

                                                                                          In parliament on 5 June 1946, three days before the London Victory Parade, Churchill said he ‘deeply’ regretted that:

                                                                                          none of the Polish troops, and I must say this, who fought with us on a score of battlefields, who poured out their blood in the common cause, are not to be allowed to march in the Victory Parade … The fate of Poland seems to be unending tragedy and we who went to war all ill-prepared on her behalf watch with sorrow the strange outcome of our endeavours.[446]

                                                                                          Churchill told the Irish Ambassador to London in 1946, “I said a few words in parliament the other day about your country because I still hope for a united Ireland. You must get those fellows in the north in, though; you can’t do it by force. There is not, and never was, any bitterness in my heart towards your country.” He later said “You know I have had many invitations to visit Ulster but I have refused them all. I don’t want to go there at all, I would much rather go to southern Ireland. Maybe I’ll buy another horse with an entry in the Irish Derby.”[447]

                                                                                          He continued to lead his party after losing the 1950 general election.

                                                                                          European unity

                                                                                          In the summer of 1930, inspired by the ideas being floated by Aristide Briand and by his recent tour of the US in the autumn of 1929, Churchill wrote an article lamenting the instability which had been caused by the independence of Poland and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary into petty states, and called for a “United States of Europe”, although he wrote that Britain was “with Europe but not of it”.[448]

                                                                                          Ideas about closer European union continued to circulate, driven by Paul-Henri Spaak, from 1942 onwards.[449] As early as March 1943 a Churchill speech on postwar reconstruction annoyed the US administration not only by not mentioning China as a great power but by proposing a purely European “Council of Europe”. Harry Hopkins passed on President Roosevelt’s concerns, warning Eden that it would “give free ammunition to (US) isolationists” who might propose an American “regional council”. Churchill urged Eden, on a visit to the US at the time, to “listen politely” but give “no countenance” to Roosevelt’s proposals for the US, UK, USSR and Chiang Kai-shek’s China to act together to enforce “Global Collective Security” with the Japanese and French Empires taken into international trusteeship (the so called “Four Policemen” idea, which would later become the UN Security Council).[450]

                                                                                          Now out of office, Churchill gave a speech at Zurich on 19 September 1946 in which he called for “a kind of United States of Europe” centred around a Franco-German partnership, with Britain and the Commonwealth, and perhaps the US, as “friends and sponsors of the new Europe”. The Times wrote of him “startling the world” with “outrageous propositions” and warned that there was as yet little appetite for such unity, and that he appeared to be assuming a permanent division between Eastern and Western Europe, and urged “more humdrum” economic agreements. Churchill’s speech was praised by Leo Amery and by Count Coudenhove-Kalergi who wrote that it would galvanise governments into action.[451][452]

                                                                                          Churchill expressed similar sentiments at a meeting of the Primrose League at the Albert Hall on 18 May 1947. He declared “let Europe arise” but was “absolutely clear” that “we shall allow no wedge to be driven between Britain and the United States”. Churchill’s speeches helped to encourage the foundation of the Council of Europe.[452][453]

                                                                                          In June 1950, Churchill was strongly critical of the Attlee Government’s failure to send British representatives to Paris to discuss the Schuman Plan for setting up the European Coal and Steel Community. He declared that les absents ont toujours tort (“the absent are always wrong”) and called it “a squalid attitude” which “derange(d) the balance of Europe” and risked Germany dominating the new grouping. He called for world unity through the UN (against the backdrop of the communist invasion of South Korea), while stressing that Britain was uniquely placed to exert leadership through her links to the Commonwealth, the US and Europe.[454] However, Churchill did not want Britain to actually join any federal grouping.[455][456][457] In September 1951, a declaration of the American, French and British foreign ministers welcomed the Schuman Plan, stressing that it would revive economic growth and encourage the development of a democratic Germany, part of the Atlantic community.[458]

                                                                                          After returning as Prime Minister, Churchill issued a note for the Cabinet on 29 November 1951. He listed British Foreign Policy priorities as Commonwealth unity and consolidation, “fraternal association” of the English-speaking world (i.e. the Commonwealth and the US), and “United Europe, to which we are a closely—and specially-related ally and friend … (it is) only when plans for uniting Europe take a federal form that we cannot take part, because we cannot subordinate ourselves or the control of British policy to federal authorities”.[459]

                                                                                          In 1956, after retiring as Prime Minister, Churchill went to Aachen to receive the Charlemagne Prize for his contribution to European Unity.[460] Churchill is today listed as one of the “Founding fathers of the European Union”.[461]

                                                                                          In July 1962, Field-Marshal Montgomery told the press that the aged Churchill, whom he had just visited in hospital where he was being treated for a broken hip, was opposed to Macmillan’s negotiations for Britain to enter the EEC (which would, in the event, be vetoed by the French President, General de Gaulle, the following January). Churchill told his granddaughter, Edwina, that Montgomery’s behaviour in leaking a private conversation was “monstrous”.[462]

                                                                                          Second term as prime minister: 1951–1955

                                                                                          Return to government

                                                                                          Domestic policy

                                                                                          After the general election of October 1951, Churchill again became prime minister, and his second government lasted until his resignation in April 1955. He also held the office of Minister of Defence from October 1951 until 1 March 1952, when he handed the portfolio to Field Marshal Alexander.[463]

                                                                                          In domestic affairs, various reforms were introduced such as the Mines and Quarries Act 1954 and the Housing Repairs and Rents Act 1954. The former measure consolidated legislation dealing with the employment of young persons and women in mines and quarries, together with safety, health, and welfare. The latter measure extended previous housing Acts, and set out details in defining housing units as “unfit for human habitation.”[464]
                                                                                          Tax allowances were raised, as well,[465] construction of council housing accelerated, and pensions and national assistance benefits were increased.[466] Controversially, however, charges for prescription medicines were introduced.[467]

                                                                                          Housing was an issue the Conservatives were widely recognised to have made their own, after the Churchill government of the early 1950s, with Harold Macmillan as Minister for Housing, giving housing construction far higher political priority than it had received under the Attlee administration (where housing had been attached to the portfolio of Health Minister Aneurin Bevan, whose attention was concentrated on his responsibilities for the National Health Service). Macmillan had accepted Churchill’s challenge to meet the latter’s ambitious public commitment to build 300,000 new homes a year, and achieved the target a year ahead of schedule.[468][469]

                                                                                          Colonial affairs

                                                                                          Crowd demonstrates against Britain in Cairo on 23 October 1951 as tension continued to mount in the dispute between Egypt and Britain over control of the Suez Canal and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

                                                                                          Kenya and Malaya

                                                                                          Churchill’s domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion.[470] Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, “I will not preside over a dismemberment.”[470]

                                                                                          This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency which had been in progress since 1948. Once again, Churchill’s government inherited a crisis, and Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not.[429][471] While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.[472]

                                                                                          Relations with the US and the quest for a summit

                                                                                          In the early 1950s, Britain was still attempting to remain a third major power on the world stage. This was “the time when Britain stood up to the United States as strongly as she was ever to do in the postwar world”.[473] However, Churchill devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and attempted to maintain the Special Relationship. He made four official transatlantic visits to America during his second term as prime minister.[474]

                                                                                          Churchill and Eden visited Washington in January 1952. The Truman Administration was supporting the plans for a European Defence Community (EDC), hoping that this would allow controlled West German rearmament and enable American troop reductions. Churchill affected to believe that the proposed EDC would not work, scoffing at the supposed difficulties of language. Churchill asked in vain for a US military commitment to support Britain’s position in Egypt and the Middle East (where the Truman Administration had recently pressured Attlee not to intervene against Mossadeq in Iran); this did not meet with American approval—the US expected British support to fight communism in Korea, but saw any US commitment to the Middle East as supporting British imperialism, and were unpersuaded that this would help prevent pro-Soviet regimes from coming to power.[475]
                                                                                          By early 1953, the Cabinet’s Foreign Policy priority was Egypt and the nationalist, anti-imperialist Egyptian Revolution.[476]

                                                                                          After Stalin’s death, Churchill, the last of the wartime Big Three, wrote to Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had just assumed office as US President, on 11 March proposing a summit meeting with the Soviets; Eisenhower wrote back pouring cold water on the suggestions as the Soviets might use it for propaganda.[477][478][479]

                                                                                          Some of Churchill’s colleagues hoped that he might retire after the Queen’s Coronation in May 1953. Eden wrote to his son on 10 April “W gets daily older & is apt to … waste a great deal of time … the outside world has little idea how difficult that becomes. Please make me retire before I am 80!” However, Eden’s serious illness (he nearly died after a series of botched operations on his bile duct) allowed Churchill to take control of foreign affairs from April 1953.[478][480]

                                                                                          After further discouragement from President Eisenhower (this was the McCarthy era in the US, in which Secretary of State Dulles took a Manichean view of the Cold War), Churchill announced his plans in the House of Commons on 11 May. The US Embassy in London noted that this was a rare occasion on which Churchill did not mention Anglo-American solidarity in a speech. Ministers like Lord Salisbury (acting Foreign Secretary) and Nutting were concerned at the irritation caused to the Americans and the French, although Selwyn Lloyd supported Churchill’s initiative, as did most Conservatives. In his diary a year later, Eden wrote of Churchill’s actions with fury.[478][481]

                                                                                          Stroke and resignation

                                                                                          Churchill had suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in the south of France in the summer of 1949. By the time he formed his next government he was slowing down noticeably enough for George VI, as early as December 1951, to consider inviting Churchill to retire in the following year in favour of Anthony Eden,[482] but it is not recorded if the King made that approach before his own death in February 1952.

                                                                                          The strain of carrying the Premiership and Foreign Office contributed to his second stroke at 10 Downing Street after dinner on the evening of 23 June 1953. Despite being partially paralysed down one side, he presided over a Cabinet meeting the next morning without anybody noticing his incapacity. Thereafter his condition deteriorated, and it was thought that he might not survive the weekend. Had Eden been fit, Churchill’s premiership would most likely have been over. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. He went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate, and by the end of June he astonished his doctors by being able, dripping with perspiration, to lift himself upright from his chair. He joked that news of his illness had chased the trial of the serial killer John Christie off the front pages.[483][484][485]

                                                                                          Churchill was still keen to pursue a meeting with the Soviets and was open to the idea of a reunified Germany. He refused to condemn the Soviet crushing of East Germany, commenting on 10 July 1953 that “The Russians were surprisingly patient about the disturbances in East Germany”. He thought this might have been the reason for the removal of Beria.[486] Churchill returned to public life in October 1953 to make a speech at the Conservative Party conference at Margate.[485] In December 1953, Churchill met Eisenhower in Bermuda.[487]

                                                                                          Churchill was annoyed about friction between Eden and Dulles (June 1954). On the trip home from another Anglo-American conference, the diplomat Pierson Dixon compared US actions in Guatemala to Soviet policy in Korea and Greece, causing Churchill to retort that Guatemala was a “bloody place” he’d “never heard of”. Churchill was still keen for a trip to Moscow, and threatened to resign, provoking a crisis in the Cabinet when Lord Salisbury threatened to resign if Churchill had his way. In the end the Soviets proposed a five-power conference, which did not meet until after Churchill had retired. By the autumn Churchill was again postponing his resignation.[488][489]

                                                                                          Eden, now partially recovered from his operations, became a major figure on the world stage in 1954, helping to negotiate peace in Indo-China, an agreement with Egypt and to broker an agreement between the countries of Western Europe after the French rejection of the EDC.[490] Aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill at last retired as prime minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden. At the time of his departure, he was considered to have had the longest ministerial career in modern British politics.[491]

                                                                                          Retirement and death: 1955–1965

                                                                                          Churchill spent much of his retirement at his home Chartwell in Kent. He purchased it in 1922 after his daughter Mary was born.

                                                                                          Elizabeth II offered to create Churchill Duke of London, but this was declined as a result of the objections of his son Randolph, who would have inherited the title on his father’s death.[492] He did, however, accept a knighthood as Garter Knight. After leaving the premiership, Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 general election.
                                                                                          Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London, and became a habitué of high society on the French Riviera.[429][493]

                                                                                          Although publicly supportive, Churchill was privately scathing about Eden’s Suez Invasion. His wife believed that he had made a number of visits to the US in the following years in an attempt to help repair Anglo-American relations.[494]

                                                                                          By the time of the 1959 general election Churchill seldom attended the House of Commons. Despite the Conservative landslide, his own majority fell by more than a thousand. It is widely believed that as his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose a battle he had supposedly long fought against depression. However, the nature, incidence and severity of Churchill’s depression is uncertain. Anthony Montague Browne, Personal Secretary to Churchill during the latter’s final ten years of life, wrote that he never heard Churchill refer to depression, and he disputed that the former prime minister suffered from depression.[495]

                                                                                          There was speculation that Churchill may have had Alzheimer’s disease in his last years, although others maintain that his reduced mental capacity was simply the cumulative result of the ten strokes and the increasing deafness he suffered from during the period 1949–1963.[496] In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States,[497] but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.[498]

                                                                                          Despite poor health, Churchill still tried to remain active in public life, and on St George’s Day 1964, sent a message of congratulations to the surviving veterans of the 1918 Zeebrugge Raid who were attending a service of commemoration in Deal, Kent, where two casualties of the raid were buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery. On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke and died at his London home nine days later, aged 90, on the morning of Sunday, 24 January 1965, 70 years to the day after his own father’s death.[498]

                                                                                          Funeral

                                                                                          Churchill’s grave at St Martin’s Church, Bladon

                                                                                          Churchill’s funeral plan had been initiated in 1953, after he suffered a major stroke, under the name Operation Hope Not. The purpose was to commemorate Churchill “on a scale befitting his position in history”, as Queen Elizabeth II declared.[499]

                                                                                          The funeral was the largest state funeral in world history up to that time, with representatives from 112 nations; only China did not send an emissary. In Europe, 350 million people, including 25 million in Britain, watched the funeral on television, and only the Republic of Ireland did not broadcast it live.[500]

                                                                                          By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state in Westminster Hall for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul’s Cathedral on 30 January 1965.[501] One of the largest assemblages of statesmen in the world was gathered for the service. Unusually, the Queen attended the funeral because Churchill was the first commoner since William Gladstone to lie-in-State.[502] As Churchill’s lead-lined coffin passed up the River Thames from Tower Pier to Festival Pier on the MV Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute.[503]

                                                                                          The Royal Artillery fired the 19-gun salute due a head of government, and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. The coffin was then taken the short distance to Waterloo station where it was loaded onto a specially prepared and painted carriage as part of the funeral train for its rail journey to Hanborough,[504] seven miles northwest of Oxford.

                                                                                          Sir Winston Churchill’s funeral train passing Clapham Junction

                                                                                          The funeral train of Pullman coaches carrying his family mourners was hauled by Battle of Britain class steam locomotive No. 34051 Winston Churchill. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. At Churchill’s request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin’s Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace. Churchill’s funeral van—former Southern Railway van S2464S—is now part of a preservation project with the Swanage Railway, having been repatriated to the UK in 2007 from the US, to where it had been exported in 1965.[505]

                                                                                          Later in 1965 a memorial to Churchill, cut by the engraver Reynolds Stone, was placed in Westminster Abbey.[506]

                                                                                          Artist, historian, and writer

                                                                                          Churchill was an accomplished amateur artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915.[507] He found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression which some say he suffered throughout his life. William Rees-Mogg wrote “In his own life, he had to suffer the ‘black dog’ of depression. In his landscapes and still lifes there is no sign of depression.”[508] Churchill was persuaded and taught to paint by his artist friend, Paul Maze, whom he met during the First World War. Maze was a great influence on Churchill’s painting and became a lifelong painting companion.[509]

                                                                                          Churchill’s best known paintings are impressionist landscapes, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France, Egypt or Morocco.[508] Using the pseudonym “Charles Morin”,[354] he continued his hobby throughout his life and painted hundreds of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell as well as private collections.[510] Most of his paintings are oil-based and feature landscapes, but he also did a number of interior scenes and portraits. In 1925 Lord Duveen, Kenneth Clark, and Oswald Birley selected his Winter Sunshine as the prize winner in a contest for anonymous amateur artists.[511]:46–47 Due to obvious time constraints, Churchill attempted only one painting during the Second World War. He completed the painting from the tower of the Villa Taylor in Marrakesh.[512]

                                                                                          Allies (1995) by Lawrence Holofcener, a sculptural group depicting Franklin D. Roosevelt and Churchill in New Bond Street, London

                                                                                          Some of his paintings can today be seen in the Wendy and Emery Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art. Emery Reves was Churchill’s American publisher, as well as a close friend[513] and Churchill often visited Emery and his wife Wendy Russell Reves at their villa, La Pausa, in the South of France, which had originally been built in 1927 for Coco Chanel by her lover the 2nd Duke of Westminster. The villa was rebuilt within the museum in 1985 with a gallery of Churchill paintings and memorabilia.[514][515]

                                                                                          Gunther estimated in 1939 that Churchill earned $100,000 a year ($1.39 million in 2016) from writing and lecturing, but that “of this he spends plenty”.[367] Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins, Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level which would fund his extravagant lifestyle. MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living.[516] From his first book in 1898 until his second stint as Prime Minister, Churchill’s income while out of office was almost entirely from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines, among them the fortnightly columns that appeared in the Evening Standard from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement.[517]

                                                                                          Churchill was a prolific writer, often under the pen name “Winston S. Churchill”, which he used by agreement[citation needed] with the American novelist of the same name to avoid confusion between their works. His output included a novel, two biographies, three volumes of memoirs, and several histories. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”.[518] Two of his most famous works, published after his first premiership brought his international fame to new heights, were his six-volume memoir The Second World War and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a four-volume history covering the period from Caesar’s invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).[519] A number of volumes of Churchill’s speeches were also published. the first of which, Into Battle, was published in the United States under the title Blood, Sweat and Tears, and was included in Life Magazine’s list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–1944.[520]

                                                                                          Churchill was an amateur bricklayer, constructing buildings and garden walls at his country home at Chartwell,[354] where he also bred butterflies.[521] As part of this hobby Churchill joined the Amalgamated Union of Building Trade Workers,[522] but was expelled due to his revived membership in the Conservative Party.[354]

                                                                                          Churchill was passionate about science and technology. When he was 22 he read Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species and a primer on physics. In the 1920s and 1930s, he wrote popular-science essays on topics such as evolution and fusion power. In an unpublished manuscript, Are We Alone in the Universe?, he investigates the possibility of extraterrestrial life in a thoroughly scientific way.[523][524]

                                                                                          Political ideology

                                                                                          Churchill was a career politician, with biographer Robert Rhodes James describing him as a man “who was to devote himself for his entire adult life to the profession of politics”.[525] In James’ view, Churchill was “fundamentally a very conservative man”, and that this “basic conservatism was a conspicuous feature of his political attitudes”.[526] Gilbert described Churchill as being “liberal in outlook” throughout his life,[527] although Jenkins thought that “there is room for argument about whether he was ever an engrained philosophical Liberal”.[528]

                                                                                          Liberalism is not Socialism, and never will be. There is a great gulf fixed. It is not a gulf of method, it is a gulf of principle … Socialism seeks to pull down wealth; Liberalism seeks to raise up poverty. Socialism would destroy private interests; Liberalism would preserve private interests in the only way in which they can be safely and justly preserved, namely by reconciling them with public right. Socialism would kill enterprise; Liberalism would rescue enterprise from the trammels of privilege and preference … Socialism exalts the rule; Liberalism exalts the man. Socialism attacks capital; Liberalism attacks monopoly.

                                                                                          —Winston Churchill on liberalism and socialism, 14 May 1908[529]

                                                                                          Gilbert described Churchill as “a radical” who believed that the state was needed to ensure “minimum standards of life, labour and social well-being for all citizens”. [530] Many Liberals doubted the conviction of his radicalism when it came to social reform.[531]
                                                                                          Churchill’s speeches on liberalism emphasised the retention of Britain’s existing social structure and the need for “gradualness” rather than revolutionary change;[532] he accepted and endorsed the existence of class divisions in British society.[533] Churchill sought social reform not out of a desire to challenge the existing social structure but out of an attempt to preserve it.[534]Charles Masterman, a Liberal reformer who knew Churchill, stated that the latter “desired in England, a state of things where a benign upper class dispensed benefits to an industrious, bien pensant, and grateful working class”.[531] In Jenkins’ view, Churchill’s privileged background prevented him from empathising with the poor, and instead he “sympathize[d] with them from on high”.[535] As a minister, Churchill engaged in anti-socialist rhetoric,[536] and sought to clearly differentiate socialism from liberalism.[537]

                                                                                          Although Churchill had upset both Edward VII and George V in his political career, he always remained a firm monarchist,[538] displaying a romanticised view of the British monarchy.[539] Jenkins described Churchill’s opposition to protectionism as being based on a “profound conviction”,[540] although during his political career many questioned the sincerity of Churchill’s anti-protectionist beliefs.[541] Although as Home Secretary he found sanctioning executions to be one of his most emotionally taxing tasks, he did not endorse the abolition of the death penalty.[542]

                                                                                          Churchill exhibited a romanticised view of the British Empire.[539]
                                                                                          Churchill was well disposed to Zionism.[543]

                                                                                          Links to political parties

                                                                                          James described Churchill as having “no permanent commitment to any” party, and that his “shifts of allegiance were never unconnected with his personal interests”.[544]
                                                                                          When campaigning for his Oldham seat in 1899, Churchill referred to himself as a Conservative and a Tory Democrat;[545] the following year, he referred to Liberals as “prigs, prudes, and faddists”.[541]
                                                                                          In a 1902 letter to a fellow Conservative, Churchill stated that he had “broad, tolerant, moderate views—a longing for compromise and agreement—a disdain for cant of all kinds—a hatred for extremists whether they be Jingos or Pro-Boers; and I confess the idea of a central party, fresher, freer, more efficient, yet, above all, loyal and patriotic, is very pleasing to my heart.”[546] This dream of a “Centre Party” that would bring together more moderate elements of the main British parties—and thus remain permanently in office—was a recurring one for Churchill.[547]

                                                                                          By 1903, he was increasingly dissatisfied with the Conservatives, in part due to their promotion of economic protectionism, but also because he had attracted the animosity of many party members and was likely aware that this might have prevented him gaining a Cabinet position under a Conservative government. The Liberal Party was then attracting growing support, and so his defection may have also have been influenced by personal ambition.[548] In a 1903 letter, he referred to himself as an “English Liberal … I hate the Tory party, their men, their words and their methods”.[549] Jenkins noted that, with Lloyd George, Churchill formed “a partnership of constructive radicalism, two social reforming New Liberals who had turned their backs on the old Gladstonian tradition of concentrating on libertarian political issues and leaving social conditions to look after themselves”.[155]

                                                                                          Throughout his political career, Churchill’s relationship with the Conservative Party was stormy.[533]

                                                                                          Personal life

                                                                                          Churchill firmly believed himself to be a man of destiny.[550] Churchill biographers have described him as egocentric,[551] brash,[552] self-confident and self-centred.[553] He had a good memory,[554] and could be reckless.[539] Describing Churchill’s “ebullient personality”,[555] Jenkins noted that in his youth, Churchill displayed “impetuous self-centredness” and “rash courage”.[556] Jenkins added that Churchill displayed a “self-confidence and determination always to go straight to the top” when dealing with a situation, approaching the highest-ranking official he could,[557] while Rhodes James described him as “a career politician, profoundly ambitious and eager for prominence”.[558]

                                                                                          Jenkins stated that in his early parliamentary years, Churchill was “often deliberately provocative”;[559] Rhodes James called it “deliberately aggressive”.[560] Rhodes James was of the view that, when speaking in the House of Commons, Churchill gave the impression of having a chip on his shoulder.[552] His barbed rhetorical style earned him many enemies in parliament,[561] and many Conservatives disliked him for his open criticism of Balfour and subsequent defection to the Liberals.[562] Gilbert stated that in his early parliamentary career, Churchill reflected “zeal, intelligence, and eagerness to learn”.[110] Churchill developed a reputation for being a heavy drinker of alcoholic beverages, although this was often over-exaggerated.[563] In India, he enjoyed playing polo.[564] Gilbert noted that Churchill’s literary style was “outspoken, vigorous, with the written equivalent of a mischievous grin”.[99] Jenkins thought that Churchill was excited and exhilarated by war, but that he was never indifferent to the suffering that it caused.[565]

                                                                                          From childhood, Churchill had been unable to pronounce the letter s, verbalising it with a slur.[54] This lateral lisp continued throughout his career, reported consistently by journalists of the time and later. Authors writing in the 1920s and 1930s, before sound recording became common, also mentioned Churchill having a stutter, describing it in terms such as “severe” or “agonising”.[566] The Churchill Centre and Museum says the majority of records show his impediment was a lateral lisp, while Churchill’s stutter is a myth.[567] His dentures were specially designed to aid his speech.[568] After many years of public speeches carefully prepared not only to inspire, but also to avoid hesitations, he could finally state, “My impediment is no hindrance”.[569]
                                                                                          Rhodes James thought that, in part because of his speech impediment, Churchill was “not a natural impromptu speaker”.[570] Churchill therefore memorised speeches before he gave them.[571] Gilbert believed that during the early 1900s, when Churchill worked as a professional speech giver, he mastered “every aspect of the art of speech-making”.[572] Jenkins noted that “Churchill lived by phrase-making. He thought rhetorically, and was constantly in danger of his policy being made by his phrases rather than vice versa.”[573] For Rhodes James, Churchill was “particularly effective” at “invective and raillery” and that he was “at his most effective when he made deliberate use of humour and sarcasm”.[574]

                                                                                          For Jenkins, Churchill was “singularly lacking in inhibition or concealment”,[575] and for Rhodes James he “lacked any capacity for intrigue and was refreshingly innocent and straightforward”.[576] Jenkins stated that Churchill “naturally had a lively sympathy for the underdog, particularly against the middle-dog, provided, and it was quite a big proviso, that his own position as a top-dog was unchallenged”.[577]
                                                                                          He was a particular fan of polo, a sport that he played while stationed in India.[539]

                                                                                          Churchill displayed particular loyalty to his family and close friends.[578] For instance, when Lloyd George was going through the Marconi scandal, one of the lowest points of his career, Churchill supported him.[579] One of his closest friends, even when he was a Liberal, was the Conservative MP F. E. Smith.[580] In 1911, he became close with Grey,[581] and another longstanding friend was Violet Asquith.[582]
                                                                                          Like his father, Churchill faced jibes that all of his friends were Jewish.[146]

                                                                                          In 1900, he retired from the regular army, and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry, where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January 1902.[583] In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars.[584] In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers, where he remained until retiring in 1924 as a Major.[584]

                                                                                          On 24 May 1901 he was initiated into Freemasonry at Studholme Lodge No.1591, which at the time met in the Regent Masonic Hall at the Cafe Royal, London,[585] passed to the Second Degree on 19 July, and raised to the Third Degree on 25 March 1902.[586]

                                                                                          Marriage and children

                                                                                          A young Winston Churchill and fiancée Clementine Hozier shortly before their marriage in 1908

                                                                                          Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of the Earl of Crewe and Crewe’s wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, and Hannah Rothschild).[587] In March 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Lady St Helier. Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance.[588] He proposed to Clementine during a house party at Blenheim Palace on 11 August 1908, in a small summer house known as the Temple of Diana.[589][590][591]

                                                                                          On 12 September 1908, he and Clementine were married in St. Margaret’s, Westminster.[161]A. G. Edwards, the Bishop of St Asaph, conducted the service.[592]
                                                                                          Their first child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny.[593][594] On 28 May 1911, their second child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square.[595] Their third child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Churchill had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to “stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city” after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.[596] Clementine gave birth to her fourth child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, four days after the official end of the First World War.[597]

                                                                                          In the early days of August 1921, the Churchills’ children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent, Mlle Rose. Clementine travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster, and his family. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold but was reported to have recovered from the illness. As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Rose sent for Clementine, but the illness proved fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery three days later.[598]
                                                                                          On 15 September 1922, the Churchills’ last child, Mary, was born. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be their home until Winston’s death in 1965.[599][600] According to Jenkins, Churchill was an “enthusiastic and loving father” but one who expected too much of his children.[601]

                                                                                          The Churchills were married for 57 years.[160] Churchill was aware of the strain that his political career placed on his marriage.[602]

                                                                                          Relationship with Lady Castlerosse

                                                                                          In autumn 1985, Churchill’s former private secretary, Sir John Colville, was interviewed by archivists at Churchill College, Cambridge. During the interview Colville reported that Churchill had had a ‘brief affair’ with Doris, Viscountess Castlerosse, a glamorous aristocrat. During the 1930s, while he was out of political office, Churchill spent four holidays with Castlerosse, in the south of France. Churchill painted at least two portraits of Castlerosse. Following the revival of his political career, in the late 1930s, Churchill ended the relationship. In the late 1950s, Castlerosse’s love letters to Churchill were revealed to Clementine. Churchill’s relationship with Castlerosse was the subject of a documentary shown on Channel 4, on 4 March 2018.[603]

                                                                                          Religion

                                                                                          Churchill was christened on December 27, 1874, in the chapel of Blenheim Palace, and was raised in the Church of England;[604] however, his religious beliefs as an adult have been described as agnostic.[605] A scholarly article published in 2013 sums up Churchill’s religious views this way:[606]

                                                                                          He did not attend worship services regularly, choosing rather to grace the cathedrals only for state occasions and rites of passage. The Bible he read merely “out of curiosity” and discussions of Church dogma were, safe to say, near the bottom of his to-do list. Furthermore, Churchill entered into a period of anti-religious fervor during his early twenties. His attitude mellowed as he aged, but the skepticism he adopted then never fully dissipated. It would appear fair to say that, on a strictly intellectual level, Churchill was an agnostic.

                                                                                          On the other hand, he remained sympathetic to religious belief and, in particular, to the Christian faith, and tended sincerely to draw on its resources as needed, irrespective of any logical contradiction with his formal doubts. The hymns and worship that Churchill imbibed in his youth embedded in him an emotional and spiritual connection with the Church of England—albeit one that stood at arms’ length to its teachings. He once described his relationship with the Church as a buttress: he supported it from the outside. He was an adamant defender of Christian civilization and earnestly advocated the need for Christian ethics in a democratic society.

                                                                                          In 1898, in a letter calmly written while facing the prospect of death in battle, he wrote to his mother, “I do not accept the Christian or any other form of religious belief”.[607] In a letter to his cousin he referred to religion as “a delicious narcotic” and expressed a preference for Protestantism over Roman Catholicism, relating that he felt it “a step nearer Reason”.[608]

                                                                                          During the Boer War, Churchill often prayed during the heat of battle, but he admitted that he thought it was an unreasonable thing to do. He reflected that: “The practice [of prayer] was comforting and the reasoning led nowhere. I therefore acted in accordance with my feelings without troubling to square such conduct with the conclusions of thought”.[609]

                                                                                          In 1907, Churchill received a letter from his future sister-in-law, Lady Gwendoline Bertie, in which she pleaded: “Please don’t become converted to Islam; I have noticed in your disposition a tendency to orientalise [fascination with the Orient and Islam], Pasha-like tendencies, I really have”.[610] However, Gwendoline may have been joking, or his “orientalizing” tendency may have been merely whimsical, for Churchill had seen Muslim fanaticism at close hand during his army service in the Sudan Campaign. In The River War (1899), his account of the conflict, he had written at age 24: “Individual Muslims may show splendid qualities … but the influence of the religion paralyses those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world”.[611] In October 1940, however, Churchill gave “happy approval” to the War Cabinet’s allocation of £100,000 towards the construction of the London Central Mosque in Regent’s Park.[612]

                                                                                          Pets and animals

                                                                                          Churchill was an animal lover and owned a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, horses, pigs, fish, and black swans, many of which were kept at Chartwell.[613]Jock Colville recounted how Churchill as wartime Prime Minister would talk to his cats about the issues he was contemplating. Colville presented Churchill with his last cat, called Jock, on his 88th birthday and Churchill made provision in the Chartwell National Trust that it would always house a cat called Jock.[614]

                                                                                          Honours

                                                                                          Coat of arms of Winston Churchill

                                                                                          In addition to the honour of a state funeral, Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours, including the following, chronologically:

                                                                                          • Churchill was appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in 1907.
                                                                                          • He received the Order of the Companions of Honour in 1922.[615]
                                                                                          • He was awarded the Territorial Decoration for his long service in the Territorial Army in 1924.[615]
                                                                                          • Churchill was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1941[615]
                                                                                          • In 1941, he was appointed to the Privy Council of Canada.[616]
                                                                                          • In 1945, while Churchill was mentioned by Halvdan Koht as one of seven appropriate candidates for the Nobel Prize in Peace, the nomination went to Cordell Hull.[617]
                                                                                          • He received the Order of Merit in 1946.[615]
                                                                                          • In 1953, Churchill was invested as a Knight of the Garter (becoming Sir Winston Churchill, KG), and awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his numerous published works, especially his six-volume set The Second World War.
                                                                                          • In 1958, Churchill College, Cambridge was founded in his honour.
                                                                                          • In 1963, Churchill was named an Honorary Citizen of the United States by Public Law 88-6/H.R. 4374 (approved/enacted 9 April 1963).[618][619]
                                                                                          • On 29 November 1995, during a visit to the United Kingdom, President Bill Clinton of the United States announced to both Houses of Parliament that an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer would be named the USS Winston S. Churchill. This was the first United States warship to be named after an Englishman since the end of the American Revolution.[620]
                                                                                          • In a BBC poll of the “100 Greatest Britons” in 2002, he was proclaimed “The Greatest of Them All” based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers.[621] Churchill was also rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by TIME.[622]

                                                                                          Military ranks and appointments

                                                                                          Churchill inspecting the 4th Queen’s Own Hussars, of which he was the Colonel of the Regiment, in Italy during 1944

                                                                                          Churchill in his air commodore’s uniform, circa 1940

                                                                                          Churchill in his 4th Queen’s Own Hussars colonel’s uniform crossing the Rhine, 25 March 1945

                                                                                          Churchill held substantive ranks in the British Army and in the Territorial Army since he was commissioned as a Cornet in the 4th Queen’s Own Hussars until his retirement from the Territorial Army in 1924 with the rank of Major, having held the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel during the Great War.[623]

                                                                                          In addition he held many honorary military appointments. In 1939, he was appointed as an Honorary Air Commodore in the Auxiliary Air Force and was awarded honorary wings in 1943.[624]
                                                                                          In 1941, he was made a Regimental Colonel of the 4th Hussars. During the Second World War, he frequently wore his uniform as an Air Commodore and as a Colonel of the Hussars. After the war he was appointed as the Colonel in Chief of the 4th Hussars,[625]Queen’s Royal Irish Hussars[626] and the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars.[627]

                                                                                          In 1913, he was appointed an Elder Brother of Trinity House as result of his appointment as First Lord of the Admiralty.[628] He held the post of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports from 1941 until his death and in that capacity was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 89th (Cinque Ports) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, on 20 February 1942.[629] In 1949, he was appointed Deputy Lieutenant (DL) of Kent.

                                                                                          Resuming, Churchill held the following military ranks and appointments:[630]

                                                                                          • Cornet, later Lieutenant, 4th Queen’s Own Hussars (1895)
                                                                                          • Captain, Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars (1902)
                                                                                          • Major, 2nd Bn/Grenadier Guards (provisional, December 1915)
                                                                                          • Lt.Colonel, 6th Bn/Royal Scots Fusiliers (provisional, January–March 1916)
                                                                                          • Major, Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars, Territorial Army (1916 – retired 1924)
                                                                                          • Air Commodore, 615th (Co.of Surrey) Fighter Sqn Royal Auxiliary Air Force (honorary, 1939)
                                                                                          • Honorary Colonel, 63rd Oxfordshire Yeomanry Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery (1939)
                                                                                          • Honorary Colonel, 6th Bn/Royal Scots Fusiliers (1940)
                                                                                          • Regimental Colonel, 4th Queen’s Own Hussars (1941)
                                                                                          • Colonel-in-Chief, 4th Queen’s Own Hussars (1941), later Queen’s Royal Irish Hussars (1958)
                                                                                          • Colonel-in-Chief, Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars (1941)
                                                                                          • Honorary Colonel, 5th (Cinque Ports) Bn/Royal Sussex Rgt (1941), later 4th/5th Bn/Royal Sussex Rgt.(1943)
                                                                                          • Honorary Colonel, 89th (Cinque Ports) Heavy Anti-Airctaft Rgt, Royal Artillery (1942)
                                                                                          • Honorary Colonel, 4th Bn/Essex Rgt, Territorial Army (1945)
                                                                                          • Honorary Colonel, 6th (Cinque Ports) Cadet Bn, the Buffs (1946)
                                                                                          • Honorary Colonel, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire Yeomanty, Royal Artillery (1950)

                                                                                          Reputation and legacy

                                                                                          The statue of Churchill (1973) by Ivor Roberts-Jones in Parliament Square, London

                                                                                          The historian Robert Rhodes James stated that Churchill had lived an “exceptionally long, complex, and controversial life”, one which—in the realm of British parliamentary politics—was comparable only to Gladstone’s in its “length, drama and incident”.[631]
                                                                                          Churchill’s reputation among the general British public remains high: he was voted number one in a 2002 BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons of all time.[632] Throughout his career, Churchill’s outspokenness earned him enemies,[76] and his legacy continues to stir intense debate among writers and historians.[2]
                                                                                          By the time he entered the House of Commons as an MP, he was already controversial, perceived by many as “an adventurer and a medal-hunter”.[633] Up until 1939, his approach to politics resulted in there developing a widespread “mistrust and dislike” of him,[631] an attitude exacerbated by his repeated party defections.[544] When First Lord of the Admiralty, many “critics denigrated him” as being “reckless, ignorant, and unprincipled, a political upstart with no understanding of the glorious traditions and methods of work of the Royal Navy”.[634]

                                                                                          Haffner believed that Churchill had an “affinity with war”, exhibiting “a profound and innate understanding of it.”[564] In his later career, Churchill gained a reputation as being the last Victorian in British politics;[635] Jenkins thought that this was not a fair assessment, stating that he remained “essentially an Edwardian rather than a Victorian” in his attitudes.[635] While staunchly opposed to labour unions and holding Communist agitation responsible for the Labour movement during the 1920s, Churchill supported social reform, if more in the spirit of Victorian paternalism.[636] Jenkins remarked that Churchill had “a substantial record as a social reformer” for his work in the first part of his parliamentary career;[535] similarly, Rhodes James thought that as a social reformer “his achievements were considerable”.[637] In Rhodes James’ view, this had been achieved because “as a minister [Churchill] had three outstanding qualities. He worked hard; he put his proposals efficiently through the Cabinet and Parliament; he carried his Department with him. These ministerial merits are not as common as might be thought.”[638]

                                                                                          Statue of Churchill in Westerham, Kent

                                                                                          Between 1966 and 1988, an eight-volume biography of Churchill was published, started by Randolph Churchill but completed largely by Martin Gilbert after the former’s death in 1968.[639] Rhodes James suggested that this official biography was a “labour of love” for Randolph Churchill, and that “what was so admirable in the son, was … less desirable in the biographer.”[640]
                                                                                          According to Allen Packwood, director of the Churchill Archives Centre, even during his own lifetime Churchill was an “incredibly complex, contradictory and larger-than-life human being,” who frequently wrestled with those contradictions.[636]

                                                                                          Notably, Churchill’s strongly held and outspoken racial views have frequently been highlighted, quoted and strongly criticised.[641] However, historian Richard Toye has observed that in the context of the era, Churchill was not “particularly unique” in having strong opinions on race and the superiority of white peoples, even if many of his contemporaries did not subscribe to them. From early on, his reputation as an unbending imperialist was well established. At the November 1921 cabinet meeting where a final decision on a proposal to retrocede Weihaiwei to China was to be made, he, alone with George Curzon, another uncompromising imperialist, adamantly opposed the proposal, no matter how worthless the territory was known to be. He lamented Britain’s historic readiness to barter away places such as Java and Corfu, asking “Why melt down the capital collected by our forebears to please a lot of pacifists?”[642]

                                                                                          Churchill’s attitudes towards and policies regarding Indians and Britain’s rule of the subcontinent are frequently criticised, and have left a lasting and highly contentious mark on his legacy. Historian Walter Reid, who has written admiringly about Churchill’s premiership and “absolutely crucial role during the Second World War,” has however acknowledged that Churchill “was very wrong in relation to India, where his conduct fell far below his usual level.” Reid further observes that while it remains “tough to give a nuanced view on Churchill in a few words,” Churchill’s efforts and those of several fellow back-bench parliamentarians in the 1930s to manipulate the 1935 Government of India Act further entrenched religious and political divisions amongst Hindus, Muslims and the Indian princely rulers.[643]

                                                                                          In 2018, Afua Hirsch wrote in The Guardian, “There’s a strange cognitive dissonance you experience working on the inconvenient parts of Churchill’s legacy – as I have been recently for a documentary I’m making. Two serious historians have told me in recent weeks that when they began researching less popular episodes in Churchill’s life, they were warned that doing so would either finish their careers, preclude them from promotion, or make them outcasts in academia.”[4]

                                                                                          Cultural depictions

                                                                                          Winston Churchill has been regularly portrayed in film, television, radio and other media. The depictions range from minor character to the biographical centerpiece, exceeding 30 films, more than two dozen television shows, several stage productions, and countless books.

                                                                                          See also

                                                                                          • List of people on the cover of Time magazine (1920s); 14 April 1923, 11 May 1925
                                                                                          • Politics of the United Kingdom
                                                                                          • Winston Churchill Memorial Trusts

                                                                                          References

                                                                                          Notes

                                                                                          1. ^ Heyden, Tom (26 January 2015). “The 10 greatest controversies of Winston Churchill’s career”. BBC News. Retrieved 29 October 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
                                                                                          2. ^ ab “Winston Churchill: greatest British hero or a warmongering villain?”. The Week. 23 January 2015.
                                                                                          3. ^ “Did Churchill Cause the Bengal Famine?”. The Churchill Project. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
                                                                                          4. ^ ab Hirsch, Afua (21 March 2018). “If you talk about Russian propaganda, remember: Britain has myths too”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
                                                                                          5. ^ Raw, Louise (23 January 2018). “Feel free to enjoy Gary Oldman’s portrayal of Churchill but don’t forget his problematic past”. The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
                                                                                          6. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1; Best 2001, p. 1; Jenkins 2001, p. 5; Robbins 2014, p. 1.
                                                                                          7. ^ Johnson, Paul (2010). Churchill. New York: Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 978-0143117995.
                                                                                          8. ^ Best 2001, p. 1.
                                                                                          9. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1; Jenkins 2001, pp. 3, 5.
                                                                                          10. ^ Best 2001, p. 2; Haffner 2003, p. 2.
                                                                                          11. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 4.
                                                                                          12. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1; Best 2001, p. 3; Jenkins 2001, p. 4; Robbins 2014, p. 2.
                                                                                          13. ^ Best 2001, p. 4; Jenkins 2001, pp. 5–6.
                                                                                          14. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 5, 7; Robbins 2014, p. 2.
                                                                                          15. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 6–7.
                                                                                          16. ^ Haffner 2003, p. 15.
                                                                                          17. ^ Haffner 2003, p. 4.
                                                                                          18. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1.
                                                                                          19. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 2; Jenkins 2001, p. 7.
                                                                                          20. ^ ab Jenkins 2001, p. 7.
                                                                                          21. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 8.
                                                                                          22. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 10; Haffner 2003, p. 13.
                                                                                          23. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 2; Jenkins 2001, p. 8.
                                                                                          24. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 2.
                                                                                          25. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 2–3; Jenkins 2001, p. 10.
                                                                                          26. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 16, 29.
                                                                                          27. ^ Best 2001, p. 6.
                                                                                          28. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 3–5; Haffner 2003, p. 12.
                                                                                          29. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 4.
                                                                                          30. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 5.
                                                                                          31. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 6–8; Haffner 2003, pp. 12–13.
                                                                                          32. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 17–19.
                                                                                          33. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 20–21.
                                                                                          34. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 25, 29.
                                                                                          35. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 32.
                                                                                          36. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 22; Jenkins 2001, p. 19.
                                                                                          37. ^ abcd Jenkins 2001, p. 21.
                                                                                          38. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 35.
                                                                                          39. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 37–39.
                                                                                          40. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 32–33, 37; Jenkins 2001, p. 20; Haffner 2003, p. 15.
                                                                                          41. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 37; Jenkins 2001, p. 20.
                                                                                          42. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 45.
                                                                                          43. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 46.
                                                                                          44. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 48–49; Jenkins 2001, p. 21; Haffner 2003, p. 32.
                                                                                          45. ^ Haffner 2003, p. 18.
                                                                                          46. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 51; Jenkins 2001, p. 21.
                                                                                          47. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 53.
                                                                                          48. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 62; Jenkins 2001, p. 28.
                                                                                          49. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 56, 58–60; Jenkins 2001, pp. 28–29; Robbins 2014, pp. 14–15.
                                                                                          50. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 57–58; Jenkins 2001, p. 29; Robbins 2014, p. 14.
                                                                                          51. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 57.
                                                                                          52. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 63; Jenkins 2001, p. 22.
                                                                                          53. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 63; Jenkins 2001, p. 23.
                                                                                          54. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 65.
                                                                                          55. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 23–24.
                                                                                          56. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 23–24; Haffner 2003, p. 19.
                                                                                          57. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 67–68; Jenkins 2001, p. 25; Haffner 2003, p. 19.
                                                                                          58. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 67–68; Jenkins 2001, pp. 24–25.
                                                                                          59. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 26.
                                                                                          60. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 69; Jenkins 2001, p. 27.
                                                                                          61. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 69, 71; Jenkins 2001, p. 27.
                                                                                          62. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 70.
                                                                                          63. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 72; Jenkins 2001, pp. 29–30.
                                                                                          64. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 75; Jenkins 2001, pp. 30–31.
                                                                                          65. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 78–79.
                                                                                          66. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 79; Jenkins 2001, p. 31.
                                                                                          67. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 81–82; Jenkins 2001, pp. 31–32; Haffner 2003, pp. 21–22.
                                                                                          68. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 81; Jenkins 2001, pp. 32–34.
                                                                                          69. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 35.
                                                                                          70. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 35; Haffner 2003, p. 21.
                                                                                          71. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 85, 89; Jenkins 2001, pp. 35–36.
                                                                                          72. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 89–90; Jenkins 2001, pp. 38–39.
                                                                                          73. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 90; Jenkins 2001, p. 39.
                                                                                          74. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 91–98; Jenkins 2001, pp. 39–40.
                                                                                          75. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 98–99; Jenkins 2001, p. 41.
                                                                                          76. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 100.
                                                                                          77. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 34, 41, 50; Haffner 2003, p. 22.
                                                                                          78. ^ Haffner 2003, p. x.
                                                                                          79. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 42.
                                                                                          80. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 101; Jenkins 2001, p. 42.
                                                                                          81. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 43.
                                                                                          82. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 103–04; Jenkins 2001, p. 44.
                                                                                          83. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 104; Jenkins 2001, p. 45.
                                                                                          84. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 45.
                                                                                          85. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 103–04; Jenkins 2001, pp. 45–46; Haffner 2003, p. 23.
                                                                                          86. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 105; Jenkins 2001, p. 47.
                                                                                          87. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 105–06; Jenkins 2001, p. 50.
                                                                                          88. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 107–10.
                                                                                          89. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 111–13; Jenkins 2001, pp. 52–53; Haffner 2003, p. 25.
                                                                                          90. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 115–20; Jenkins 2001, pp. 55–62.
                                                                                          91. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 121; Jenkins 2001, p. 61.
                                                                                          92. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 121–22; Jenkins 2001, pp. 61–62.
                                                                                          93. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 125.
                                                                                          94. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 63.
                                                                                          95. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 123–24, 126–29; Jenkins 2001, p. 62.
                                                                                          96. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 128–31.
                                                                                          97. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 133; Jenkins 2001, p. 65.
                                                                                          98. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 135; Jenkins 2001, p. 110.
                                                                                          99. ^ abc Gilbert 1991, p. 141.
                                                                                          100. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 133, 135; Jenkins 2001, p. 65; Haffner 2003, p. 27.
                                                                                          101. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 136.
                                                                                          102. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 136–37; Jenkins 2001, pp. 68–70.
                                                                                          103. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 137.
                                                                                          104. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 69.
                                                                                          105. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 138; Jenkins 2001, p. 70.
                                                                                          106. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 139; Jenkins 2001, pp. 71–73.
                                                                                          107. ^ Rhodes James 1970, p. 16; Jenkins 2001, pp. 76–77.
                                                                                          108. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 145.
                                                                                          109. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 147.
                                                                                          110. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 148.
                                                                                          111. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 141–44; Jenkins 2001, pp. 74–75.
                                                                                          112. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 144.
                                                                                          113. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 150.
                                                                                          114. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 151–52.
                                                                                          115. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 162.
                                                                                          116. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 153.
                                                                                          117. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 163.
                                                                                          118. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 154.
                                                                                          119. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 152.
                                                                                          120. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 155–56.
                                                                                          121. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 157.
                                                                                          122. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 159.
                                                                                          123. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 160; Jenkins 2001, p. 84.
                                                                                          124. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 162–63; Jenkins 2001, p. 86.
                                                                                          125. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 165.
                                                                                          126. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 165; Jenkins 2001, p. 88.
                                                                                          127. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 173–74; Jenkins 2001, p. 103.
                                                                                          128. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 174.
                                                                                          129. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 176.
                                                                                          130. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 162–63.
                                                                                          131. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 175; Jenkins 2001, p. 109.
                                                                                          132. ^ Rhodes James 1970, p. 16; Gilbert 1991, p. 175.
                                                                                          133. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 171; Jenkins 2001, p. 100.
                                                                                          134. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 102–03.
                                                                                          135. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 172.
                                                                                          136. ^ Rhodes James 1970, p. 23; Gilbert 1991, p. 174; Jenkins 2001, p. 104.
                                                                                          137. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 104–05.
                                                                                          138. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 174; Jenkins 2001, p. 105.
                                                                                          139. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 176; Jenkins 2001, pp. 113–15, 120.
                                                                                          140. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 182.
                                                                                          141. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 177.
                                                                                          142. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 177; Jenkins 2001, pp. 111–13.
                                                                                          143. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 183.
                                                                                          144. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 180; Jenkins 2001, p. 121.
                                                                                          145. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 181; Jenkins 2001, p. 121.
                                                                                          146. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 181.
                                                                                          147. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 185.
                                                                                          148. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 185–86.
                                                                                          149. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 186–88.
                                                                                          150. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 188.
                                                                                          151. ^ Rhodes James 1970, p. 33; Gilbert 1991, p. 194; Jenkins 2001, p. 129.
                                                                                          152. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 129.
                                                                                          153. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 194–95; Jenkins 2001, p. 130.
                                                                                          154. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 195; Jenkins 2001, pp. 130–31.
                                                                                          155. ^ ab Jenkins 2001, p. 143.
                                                                                          156. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 203.
                                                                                          157. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 193–94.
                                                                                          158. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 209; Jenkins 2001, p. 167.
                                                                                          159. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 195.
                                                                                          160. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 199.
                                                                                          161. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 200.
                                                                                          162. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 196.
                                                                                          163. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 203–04; Jenkins 2001, p. 150.
                                                                                          164. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 204; Jenkins 2001, pp. 150–51.
                                                                                          165. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 201; Jenkins 2001, p. 151.
                                                                                          166. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 154–57.
                                                                                          167. ^ Toye, Richard (2007). “Supporters Rampant”. Lloyd George and Churchill: Rivals for Greatness. London: Macmillan. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1405048965.
                                                                                          168. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 198–99; Jenkins 2001, pp. 154–55.
                                                                                          169. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 155.
                                                                                          170. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 207–08; Jenkins 2001, p. 151.
                                                                                          171. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 198; Jenkins 2001, p. 139.
                                                                                          172. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 200; Jenkins 2001, p. 140.
                                                                                          173. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 200; Jenkins 2001, p. 142.
                                                                                          174. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 204; Jenkins 2001, p. 203.
                                                                                          175. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 205; Jenkins 2001, p. 203.
                                                                                          176. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 157–59.
                                                                                          177. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 161.
                                                                                          178. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 205, 210; Jenkins 2001, p. 164.
                                                                                          179. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 206.
                                                                                          180. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 211; Jenkins 2001, p. 167.
                                                                                          181. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 167–68.
                                                                                          182. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 216–17.
                                                                                          183. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 225; Jenkins 2001, p. 182.
                                                                                          184. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 211; Jenkins 2001, p. 169.
                                                                                          185. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 212; Jenkins 2001, p. 179.
                                                                                          186. ^ abc Gilbert 1991, p. 212.
                                                                                          187. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 212; Jenkins 2001, p. 181.
                                                                                          188. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 215.
                                                                                          189. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 213.
                                                                                          190. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 213–14.
                                                                                          191. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 183.
                                                                                          192. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 221–22.
                                                                                          193. ^ ab Jenkins 2001, p. 186.
                                                                                          194. ^ abc Gilbert 1991, p. 221.
                                                                                          195. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 217; Jenkins 2001, p. 186.
                                                                                          196. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 219; Jenkins 2001, p. 195.
                                                                                          197. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 219; Jenkins 2001, p. 198.
                                                                                          198. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 220.
                                                                                          199. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 199.
                                                                                          200. ^ Rhodes James 1970, p. 38.
                                                                                          201. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 222; Jenkins 2001, pp. 190–91, 193.
                                                                                          202. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 222; Jenkins 2001, p. 194.
                                                                                          203. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 224; Jenkins 2001, p. 195.
                                                                                          204. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 224.
                                                                                          205. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 226; Jenkins 2001, pp. 177–78.
                                                                                          206. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 226; Jenkins 2001, p. 178.
                                                                                          207. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 178.
                                                                                          208. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 227; Jenkins 2001, p. 203.
                                                                                          209. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 230–33; Jenkins 2001, pp. 200–01.
                                                                                          210. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 235.
                                                                                          211. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 202.
                                                                                          212. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 239; Jenkins 2001, p. 205.
                                                                                          213. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 249; Jenkins 2001, p. 207.
                                                                                          214. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 240; Jenkins 2001, p. 207.
                                                                                          215. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 23.
                                                                                          216. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 243.
                                                                                          217. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 241–42.
                                                                                          218. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 243–45.
                                                                                          219. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 247.
                                                                                          220. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 242.
                                                                                          221. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 240.
                                                                                          222. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 251.
                                                                                          223. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 248, 253.
                                                                                          224. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 253–54.
                                                                                          225. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 260–61.
                                                                                          226. ^ Gilbert, Martin (31 May 2009). “Churchill and Eugenics”. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
                                                                                          227. ^ Rhodes James 1970, p. 44.
                                                                                          228. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 256; Jenkins 2001, p. 233.
                                                                                          229. ^ Rhodes James 1970, pp. 44–45; Gilbert 1991, pp. 249–50; Jenkins 2001, pp. 233–34.
                                                                                          230. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 250.
                                                                                          231. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 254–55.
                                                                                          232. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 255.
                                                                                          233. ^ Rhodes James 1970, pp. 47–49; Gilbert 1991, pp. 256–57.
                                                                                          234. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 257–58.
                                                                                          235. ^ Rhodes James 1970, p. 52; Gilbert 1991, p. 268.
                                                                                          236. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 261.
                                                                                          237. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 266–67.
                                                                                          238. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 269.
                                                                                          239. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 273–75.
                                                                                          240. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 277.
                                                                                          241. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 278.
                                                                                          242. ^ ab Gilbert 1991, p. 279.
                                                                                          243. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 280–82.
                                                                                          244. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 280–81.
                                                                                          245. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 285.
                                                                                          246. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 282–85.
                                                                                          247. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 286.
                                                                                          248. ^ James, Robert Rhodes (1973). Churchill: A Study in Failure: 1900–1938. Pelican. p. 80. ISBN 978-0140059748.
                                                                                          249. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 289.
                                                                                          250. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 290.
                                                                                          251. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 293, 298–99.
                                                                                          252. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 291–92.
                                                                                          253. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 304, 310.
                                                                                          254. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 309.
                                                                                          255. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 316–16.
                                                                                          256. ^ Jenkins, pp. 282–88
                                                                                          257. ^ Gilbert 1991, pp. 319–20.
                                                                                          258. ^ Jenkins, Roy (2001). “Finished at Forty?”. Churchill. London: Macmillan. pp. 284–288. ISBN 978-0333782903.
                                                                                          259. ^ “No. 29520”. The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 March 1916. p. 3260.
                                                                                          260. ^ ab “20th and early 21st Century”. Army.mod.uk. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
                                                                                          261. ^ Jenkins, Roy (2001). “An Improbable Colonel and a Misjudged Re-entry”. Churchill. London: Macmillan. pp. 301–302. ISBN 978-0333782903.
                                                                                          262. ^ Jenkins, p. 309
                                                                                          263. ^ ab Myers, Kevin (3 September 2009). “The greatest 20th century beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill”. The Irish Independent. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
                                                                                          264. ^ Ferris, John. “Treasury Control, the Ten Year Rule and British Service Policies, 1919–1924”. The Historical Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4. (December 1987), pp. 859–83
                                                                                          265. ^ Jenkins, Roy (2001). “A Relentless Writer”. Churchill. London: Macmillan. p. 418. ISBN 978-0333782903.
                                                                                          266. ^ Wallin, Jeffrey; Williams, Juan (4 September 2001). “Cover Story: Churchill’s Greatness”. Churchill Centre. Archived from the original on 16 December 2003. Retrieved 26 February 2007.
                                                                                          267. ^ Jordan, Anthony J. (April 1995). Churchill, a founder of modern Ireland. Westport Books. pp. 70–75. ISBN 978-0952444701. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
                                                                                          268. ^ Jenkins, pp. 361–65
                                                                                          269. ^ ab Douglas, R.M., ‘Did Britain Use Chemical Weapons in Mandatory Iraq?’, The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 81, No. 4 (December 2009), pp. 859–87
                                                                                          270. ^ ab Kersaudy, François Churchill and de Gaulle, Saddle Brook: Stratford Press, 1981, p. 27[ISBN missing]
                                                                                          271. ^ abcd Kersaudy, François Churchill and de Gaulle, Saddle Brook: Stratford Press (1981), p. 28.[ISBN missing]
                                                                                          272. ^ ab Hall, Douglas J. (2008-10-14). “Churchill’s Elections”. The Churchill Centre. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
                                                                                          273. ^ Jenkins, Roy (2001). “A Politician without a Party or a Seat”. Churchill. London: Macmillan. pp. 382–84. ISBN 978-0333782903.
                                                                                          274. ^ Cook and Ramsden, By-Elections in British Politics, pp. 53–61
                                                                                          275. ^ Cook, Chris. Sources in British Political History, 1900–1951 (Volume 1); Macmillan Press, 1975 p. 73
                                                                                          276. ^ British parliamentary election results 1918–1949, Craig, F. W. S.
                                                                                          277. ^ “Winston Churchill and Parliamentary Democracy”. Churchill Society for the Advancement of Parliamentary Democracy. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
                                                                                          278. ^ “Budget Blunders: Mr Churchill and the Gold Standard (1925)”. BBC News. 9 March 1999. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
                                                                                          279. ^ James, p. 207[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          280. ^ James, p. 206[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          281. ^ “Speeches – Gold Standard Bill”. The Churchill Centre. 4 May 1925. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
                                                                                          282. ^ Jenkins, p. 405
                                                                                          283. ^ Gilbert, pp. 146–74[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          284. ^ Gilbert, p. 162[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          285. ^ Gilbert, p. 173[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          286. ^ Henderson, Hubert The Interwar Years and other papers. Clarendon Press
                                                                                          287. ^ James 1970, p. 168
                                                                                          288. ^ abc Gilbert, Martin (2004). Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-1844134182.
                                                                                          289. ^ Books Written by Winston Churchill (see Amid these Storms), The Churchill Centre (2007).
                                                                                          290. ^ 247 House of Commons Debates 5s col 755
                                                                                          291. ^ ab Myers, Kevin (6 August 2010). “Seventy years on and the soundtrack to the summer of 1940 is filling Britain’s airwaves”. The Irish Independent. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
                                                                                          292. ^ Barczewsk, Stephanie, John Eglin, Stephen Heathorn, Michael Silvestri, and Michelle Tusan. Britain Since 1688: A Nation in the World, p. 301
                                                                                          293. ^ Toye, Richard. Churchill’s Empire: The World That Made Him and the World He Made, p. 172[ISBN missing]
                                                                                          294. ^ Ferriter, Diarmuid (4 March 2017). “Book Review – Inglorious Empire: what the British did to India”. The Irish Times.
                                                                                          295. ^ “Churchill took hardline on Gandhi”. BBC News. 1 January 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
                                                                                          296. ^ James, p. 260[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          297. ^ Hansard 1803–2005; HC Deb 26 January 1931 vol 247 cc 637–762
                                                                                          298. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: The Prophet of Truth: 1922–1939. 1976 by C&T Publications, Ltd: p. 618
                                                                                          299. ^ Guha, Ramachandra (19 June 2005). “Churchill and Gandhi”. The Hindu. Chennai, India.
                                                                                          300. ^ speech on 18 March 1931 quoted in James, p. 254[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          301. ^ James, p. 262[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          302. ^ Subramanian, Archana (3 March 2016). “Striking a deal”. The Hindu. Chennai, India.
                                                                                          303. ^ James, pp. 269–72[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          304. ^ Hansard 1803–2005; Privilege. HC Deb 13 June 1934 vol 290 cc1711–808
                                                                                          305. ^ James, p. 258[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          306. ^ James, pp. 285–86[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          307. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 75[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          308. ^ Lord Lloyd and the decline of the British Empire J. Charmley pp. 1–2, 213ff
                                                                                          309. ^ Muller, James W. (1999). Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” Speech Fifty Years Later. p. 101.
                                                                                            [ISBN missing]
                                                                                          310. ^ Julius, Anthony. The Trials of the Diaspora, A History of Anti-Semitism in England, Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 408;[ISBN missing]
                                                                                            Regarding the conspiracy theory writer, Nesta H. Webster, “Churchill cited her with approval in his 1920 newspaper article “Zionism versus Bolshevism”
                                                                                          311. ^ Winston Churchill (8 February 1920). “Zionism versus Bolshevism”. Illustrated Sunday Herald. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
                                                                                          312. ^ Martin Gilbert (2 September 2008). Churchill and the Jews: A Lifelong Friendship. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-8864-9.
                                                                                          313. ^ James, p. 329, quoting Churchill’s speech in the Commons[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          314. ^ James, p. 408[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          315. ^ Taylor, A. J. P. Beaverbrook Hamish Hamilton 1972 p. 375
                                                                                          316. ^ Gilbert, p. 457[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          317. ^ Holmes, Richard (2005). In the footsteps of Churchill. Basic Books. p. 185. ISBN 978-0465030828.
                                                                                          318. ^ Churchill, Winston. Great Contemporaries (1937), New York: GP Putnam Sons, Inc. p. 225.[ISBN missing]
                                                                                          319. ^ for a history of The Focus see E. Spier Focus Wolff 1963
                                                                                          320. ^ Harold Nicolson’s letter to Vita Sackville-West (his wife) on 13 March summed up the situation: “If we send an ultimatum to Germany she ought in all reason to climb down. But then she will not climb down and we shall have war  … The people of this country absolutely refuse to have a war. We would be faced with a general strike if we suggested such a thing. We shall therefore have to climb down ignominiously”, Diaries and Letters 1930–1939, p. 249
                                                                                          321. ^ James, pp. 333–37[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          322. ^ The Origins of the Second World War p. 153
                                                                                          323. ^ James 1970, pp. 263–64
                                                                                          324. ^ abc Charmley 1993, pp. 314–15
                                                                                          325. ^ abc James 1970, pp. 265–66
                                                                                          326. ^ The Gathering Storm, pp. 178–79, 276
                                                                                          327. ^ “The Locust Speech”. Churchill Society. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
                                                                                          328. ^ James 1970, p. 343
                                                                                          329. ^ Smith, Frederick, 2nd Earl of Birkenhead (1969). Walter Monckton. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 129.
                                                                                          330. ^ Middlemas, K. R.; Barnes, J. (1969). Stanley Baldwin. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 999.
                                                                                            [ISBN missing]
                                                                                          331. ^ The Gathering Storm pp. 170–71. Others including Citrine who chaired the meeting wrote that Churchill did not make such a speech. Citrine Men and Work Hutchinson 1964 p. 357
                                                                                          332. ^ James, pp. 349–51, where the text of the statement is given.[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          333. ^ Beaverbrook, Lord; Edited by Taylor, A. J. P. (1966). The Abdication of King Edward VIII. London: Hamish Hamilton.
                                                                                          334. ^ Cooke, Alistair. ‘Edward VIII’ in Six Men, Bodley Head (1977).
                                                                                          335. ^ Macmillan, H. The Blast of War Macmillan 1970
                                                                                          336. ^ The Gathering Storm p. 171
                                                                                          337. ^ Taylor, A. J. P. English History (1914–1945), Hamish Hamilton (1961), p. 404.
                                                                                          338. ^ James, p. 353[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          339. ^ These factions were headed by Anthony Eden and Leo Amery James, p. 428[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          340. ^ abcd Blake, Robert (1993). “How Churchill Became Prime Minister”. In Blake, Robert B.; Louis, William Roger. Churchill. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 264, 270–71. ISBN 978-0198206262.
                                                                                          341. ^ ab James, Robert Rhodes (1993). “Churchill the Parliamentarian, Orator, and Statesman”. In Blake, Robert B.; Louis, William Roger. Churchill. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 513, 515–17. ISBN 978-0198206262.
                                                                                          342. ^ James, p. 302[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          343. ^ James, pp. 316–18[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          344. ^ Picknett, et al., pp. 149–50[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          345. ^ Current Biography 1942, p. 155
                                                                                          346. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: Prophet of Truth: 1923–1939. 1977: p. 972
                                                                                          347. ^ Langworth 2008, pp. 256–57
                                                                                          348. ^ Churchill later claimed in his History of the Second World War that on learning of his appointment the Board of the Admiralty sent a signal to the Fleet: “Winston is back”. Although this story was repeated by Lord Mountbatten in a speech at Edmonton in 1966, Richard Langworth (2008, p. 581) notes that neither he nor Churchill’s official biographer Martin Gilbert have found contemporary evidence to confirm it, suggesting that it may well be a later invention. (Gilbert repeats the tale as fact on p. 1113 of the 1922–39 volume of his biography, but gives no source; on p. 232 of In Search of Churchill, in a section on apocryphal sayings attributed to Churchill, he mentions how he was unable to locate documentary evidence to confirm it despite several searches.)
                                                                                          349. ^ Churchill, Winston. The Second World War (abridged edition), p. 163. Pimlico (2002);
                                                                                            ISBN 0712667024.
                                                                                          350. ^ Brendon, Piers. “The Churchill Papers: Biographical History”. Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge. Retrieved 26 February 2007.
                                                                                          351. ^ Lunde 2009, pp. 11–14
                                                                                          352. ^ Kersaudy, François (1995). “allierte planer”. In Dahl; Hjeltnes; Nøkleby; Ringdal; Sørensen. Norsk krigsleksikon 1940–45 (in Norwegian). Oslo: Cappelen. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-8202141387.
                                                                                          353. ^ Self, Robert (2006). Neville Chamberlain: A Biography, p. 431. Ashgate;
                                                                                            ISBN 978-0754656159.
                                                                                          354. ^ abcde Knickerbocker, H. R. (1941). Is Tomorrow Hitler’s? 200 Questions On the Battle of Mankind. Reynal & Hitchcock. pp. 140, 150, 178–79. ISBN 978-1417992775.
                                                                                          355. ^ ab Reynolds, David (1993). “Churchill in 1940: The Worst and Finest Hour”. In Blake, Robert B.; Louis, William Roger. Churchill. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 249, 252–55. ISBN 978-0198206262.
                                                                                          356. ^ Ingersoll, Ralph (1940). Report on England, November 1940. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 127.
                                                                                          357. ^ Schneer, Jonathan (16 March 2015). Ministers at War. Oneworld Publications. pp. 28–31. ISBN 978-1780746142.
                                                                                          358. ^ Jenkins, pp. 616–46
                                                                                          359. ^ Jenkins, p. 621
                                                                                          360. ^ Allen, Hubert Raymond. Who Won the Battle of Britain?, London: Arthur Barker (1974);
                                                                                            ISBN 0213164892.
                                                                                          361. ^ “We Shall Fight on the Beaches”. Churchill Centre. 4 June 1940. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
                                                                                          362. ^ “Their Finest Hour, 18 June 1940”. Churchill Centre. 1940-06-18. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
                                                                                          363. ^ Speech to the House of Commons on 20 August 1940
                                                                                          364. ^ “Famous Quotations and Stories”. Churchill Centre. Archived from the original on 2 October 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
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                                                                                          367. ^ ab Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 328, 332–33.
                                                                                          368. ^ Pawle, Gerald (1963). “Flight to Cairo”. The War and Colonel Warden. George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-0856176371. Colonel Warden was his favourite pseudonym
                                                                                          369. ^ Moran, Lord. Winston Churchill: the Struggle for Survival 1940–1965 (Constable, 1966). p 167.
                                                                                          370. ^ Storr, Anthony. “The Man”, in A. J. P. Taylor, et al., Churchill: Four Faces and the Man (Penguin, 1973)
                                                                                          371. ^ Ramsden, John. Man of the Century: Winston Churchill and his Legend since 1945, Harper Collins (2003), p. 531
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                                                                                          375. ^ Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John (ed.), Action This Day (Macmillan, 1968); Colville, J. The Fringes of Power (Hodder and Stoughton, 1985); Ismay, Lord Memoirs (Heinemann, 1960); Harriman, A. and E. Abel, Special Envoy to Churchill and Stalin 1941–1946 (Hutchinson, 1976).
                                                                                          376. ^ Attenborough, W. Churchill and the ‘Black Dog’ of Depression (Palgrave, 2014), pp. 153–58
                                                                                          377. ^ Soames, Mary (ed.), Speaking For Themselves: the Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill (Black Swan, 1999), p. 53
                                                                                          378. ^ Attenborough, W. Churchill and the ‘Black Dog’ of Depression (Palgrave, 2014), pp. 72–81
                                                                                          379. ^ Shorter, E. How Everyone Became Depressed (OUP, New York 2013), pp. 118–24.
                                                                                          380. ^ Moran, Lord. Struggle for Survival (Constable, 1966), pp. 99–100
                                                                                          381. ^ Wheeler-Bennett, J. (ed.) Action This Day (Macmillan, 1968), pp. 70, 146.
                                                                                          382. ^ Churchill, W. S. Painting as a Pastime (Odhams, 1948), pp. 7–13.
                                                                                          383. ^ Stafford-Clark, David Psychiatry Today (Penguin, 1952), pp. 94–99.
                                                                                          384. ^ Churchill, W. S. Hinge of Fate (Cassell, 1951), p. 344
                                                                                          385. ^ Moran, pp. 37–38
                                                                                          386. ^ Danchev, A. & D. Todman (eds.), Lord Alanbrooke: War Diaries 1939–1945 (Phoenix Press, 2002), p. 269.
                                                                                          387. ^ Alanbrooke, Field Marshal Lord (2001). Danchev, Alex; Todman, Daniel, eds. War Diaries 1939–1945. Phoenix Press. p. 590. ISBN 978-1842125267.
                                                                                          388. ^ Gunther, John (1950). Roosevelt in Retrospect. Harper & Brothers. pp. 15–16.
                                                                                          389. ^ Lukacs, John (Spring–Summer 2008). “Churchill Offers Toil and Tears to FDR”. American Heritage. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
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                                                                                          391. ^ Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s Address to the Congress of the United States 1941, ibiblio.org; accessed 27 December 2016
                                                                                          392. ^ No Laughing Matter: The Value of Humor in Educational Leadership by Robert Palestini; R&L Education, 2012, p. 89
                                                                                          393. ^ Beschloss, Michael R. The Conquerors (2002), p. 131
                                                                                          394. ^ Jenkins, p. 849
                                                                                          395. ^ “The Churchill Papers: Biography”. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
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                                                                                          399. ^ Hansard 1803–2005; Poland; HC Deb 15 December 1944 vol 406 cc1478–578
                                                                                          400. ^ Douglas, R. M. (25 June 2012). “The Expulsion Of The Germans: The Largest Forced Migration In History”. Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
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                                                                                          402. ^ De Zayas, Alfred M. (1979) Nemesis at Potsdam: The Anglo-Americans and the Expulsion of the Germans, Routledge;
                                                                                            ISBN 0710004583. Chapter I, p. 1 citing Churchill, Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, Vol. 406, col. 1484
                                                                                          403. ^ ab German statistics (Statistical and graphical data illustrating German population movements in the aftermath of the Second World War published in 1966 by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons) p. 5
                                                                                          404. ^ Jenkins, pp. 759–63
                                                                                          405. ^ ab Churchill, Winston (1989). The Second World War. London: Penguin. p. 852. ISBN 978-0140128369.
                                                                                          406. ^ ab Resis, Albert (April 1978). “The Churchill-Stalin Secret “Percentages” Agreement on the Balkans, Moscow, October 1944″. The American Historical Review. 83 (2): 368. doi:10.2307/1862322. JSTOR 1862322.
                                                                                          407. ^ A Footnote to Yalta Archived 16 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. by Jeremy Murray-Brown, Documentary at Boston University
                                                                                          408. ^ Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. The Gulag Archipelago, vol. 1. Translated by Thomas P. Whitney. New York: Harper and Row, 1974, p. 85
                                                                                          409. ^ Hornberger, Jacob (1995). “Repatriation – The Dark Side of World War II”. The Future of Freedom Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
                                                                                          410. ^ See Dyson and Maharatna (1991) for a review of the data and the various estimates made.[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          411. ^ ab Gordon, Leonard A. (1 January 1983). “Review of Prosperity and Misery in Modern Bengal: The Famine of 1943–1944”. The American Historical Review. 88 (4): 1051. doi:10.2307/1874145. JSTOR 1874145.
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                                                                                          413. ^ “Did Churchill cause the Bengal Famine of 1943, as has been claimed?”. Churchill Central. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017.
                                                                                          414. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (March 2017). Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India. Hurst.
                                                                                          415. ^ Jones, Adam (2016-12-16). “Chapter 2 State and Empire; War and Revolution”. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317533856.
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                                                                                          417. ^ Wavell, Archibald Percival (1973). Moon, Penderel, ed. Wavell: The Viceroy’s journal. Oxford University Press. p. 78. Winston sent me a peevish telegram to ask why Gandhi hadn’t died yet! He has never answered my telegram about food.
                                                                                          418. ^ Pankaj Mishra “Exit Wounds”, The New Yorker, 13 August 2007
                                                                                          419. ^ Taylor, Frederick. Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945, New York: Harper Collins
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                                                                                          420. ^ Quoted after the devastation of Dresden by aerial bombing, and the resulting fire storm (February 1945) in Where the Right Went Wrong (2004) by Buchanan, Patrick J., p. 119
                                                                                          421. ^ ab Longmate, Norman (1983). The Bombers, Hutchins & Co. p. 346. Harris quote as source: Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman From Apes to Warlords p. 352
                                                                                          422. ^ ab *Taylor, Frederick (2004). Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945, London: Bloomsbury;
                                                                                            ISBN 0747570787. pp. 432–33
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                                                                                          424. ^ Grayling, A.C. (2006). Among the Dead Cities. New York: Walker Publishing Company Inc. pp. 237–38. ISBN 978-0802714718.
                                                                                          425. ^ Hawley, Charles. “Dresden Bombing Is To Be Regretted Enormously”, Der Spiegel online, 11 February 2005.
                                                                                          426. ^ Coming Home BBC Four, 9:00 am – 9:45 am, 9–13 May 2005
                                                                                          427. ^ On this day 8 May 1945, BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2007
                                                                                          428. ^ The UK was on double summer time which was one hour in front of 2301 hours CET that the surrender document specified (“RAF Site Diary 7/8 May”. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2007.)
                                                                                          429. ^ abc Gilbert, Martin (2001). Churchill: A Study in Greatness (one-volume edition). London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0712667258.
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                                                                                          432. ^ ab Time, 25 June 1945
                                                                                          433. ^ ab Fenby, Jonathan. The General: Charles de Gaulle and The France He Saved (2010), pp. 42–47
                                                                                          434. ^ Gilbert, pp. 22–23, 27[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          435. ^ Gilbert, pp. 57, 107–09[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          436. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 190[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          437. ^ Jenkins, pp. 789–94
                                                                                          438. ^ Gilbert, p. 113[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          439. ^ Gilbert, p. 110; Gilbert points out that up to this point he had in fact served for approximately 28.5 years as a Cabinet Minister.[incomplete short citation]
                                                                                          440. ^ “WWII Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West – Biographies: Anthony Eden”. PBS. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
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                                                                                          442. ^ “Interview: Clark Clifford”. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Retrieved 23 March 2009
                                                                                          443. ^ Churchill, Winston. “Sinews of Peace (Iron Curtain)”. Churchill Centre. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2007.
                                                                                          444. ^ Maier, Thomas (2014). When Lions Roar: The Churchills and the Kennedys. Crown. pp. 412–13. ISBN 978-0307956798.
                                                                                          445. ^ Kevin Ruane, Churchill and the Bomb in War and Cold War (2016) p. 156
                                                                                          446. ^ Rees, Laurence (2008). “The Iron Curtain”. World War Two Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis, and the West (First ed.). BBC Books. p. 391. ISBN 9780563493358.
                                                                                          447. ^ “Winston Churchill spoke of his hopes for a united Ireland”. The Irish Times. 17 November 2014.
                                                                                          448. ^ James 1970, p. 220
                                                                                          449. ^ Charmley 1995, pp. 107–830